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Global Glossary Grid - Prepared as a joint research project by Identity Commons and ABA, Business Law Section, Cyberspace Law Committee


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Source of Definitions Glossary
Incommon Federation Participant Operational Practices
E-Authentication Federation Interim Legal Document Suite
ID Commons: Identipedia
Cameron, Posch, Rannenberg: Proposal for a Common Identity Framework: User Centric Identity Metasystem
Wikipedia: Digital Identity
European Union eGovernment Unit: Modinis: Common Terminological Framework for Interop Electronic Identity Management
OpenPrivacy.org
Random Thoughts on Digital Identity Digital Identity Glossary
Milgate: The Identity Dictionary
National Security Telecom Advisory Comm.(NSTAC) Report to the President on Identity Management Strategy
Identity Management Task Force Report 2008
Electronic Authentication Partnership (EAP) Trust Framework
Smedinghoff: Federated Identity Management: Balancing Privacy Rights, Liability Risks and the Duty to Authenticate
Kantara Identity Assurance Framework - Glossary
Center for Democracy and Technology: Issues for Responsible User-Centric Identity
Aspen Institute: Identity in the Age of Cloud Computing***
ID Commons: Lexicon from IdCommons
ABA Identity Management Services Agreement
Oasis: Glossary for the OASIS Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) V2.0
Liberty Alliance Privacy and Security Best Practices
Liberty Glossary v.2.0
Liberty Identity Assurance Framework
ABA: Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Assessment Guidelines
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
RFID Application Privacy Impact Assessment Framework
ITU-T X.1252 Baseline Identity Management Terms and Definitions
Recommendation X.1252: Baseline Identity Management Terms and Definitions
Draft Recommendation X.1252: Baseline Identity Management Terms and Definitions
Draft Recommendation ITU-T X.priva, Criteria for assessing the level of protection for personally identifiable information in IdM
Draft Recommendation ITU-T X.1275, Guideline on Protection of Personally Identifiable information in the application of RFID Technology
Generally Accepted Privacy Principles: A Global Privacy Network
Glossary of Terms
2006 Identity Fraud Survey Report
Identity management Terminology
Federal Information Processing Standards Publication
Glossary of Key Information Security Terms
National Strategy for Trusted Identities in Cyberspace

abstract services




Architectural components that deliver useful services and can be described through high level goals, structures and behaviors. In practice, these abstract services are refined into concrete service definitions and instantiations.


































abstract WSDL





















An abstract WSDL service definition is that portion of a WSDL document [WSDLv1.1] — describing said service — comprised of the <wsdl:types>, <wsdl:message>, and <wsdl:portType> elements.

















access









The ability to use a resource or a service. More specifically, the Permissions or Entitlements associated with an Identity.










To interact with a system entity in order to manipulate, use, gain knowledge of, and/or obtain a representation of some or all of a system entity's resources.




Opportunity to make use of an information system (IS) resource.













Ability to make use of any information system (IS) resource.

Ability and means to communicate with or otherwise interact with a system, to use system resources to handle information, to gain knowledge of the information the system contains, or to control system components and functions.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


access authority




































An entity responsible for monitoring and granting access privileges for other authorized entities.

SOURCE CNSSI-4009


access certification


































Over time, users may accumulate entitlements which are no longer needed or appropriate for their job function. Access certification is a process by which appropriate business stake-holders, such as users' managers or application owners, can periodically review entitlements and identify those that should be removed.




Access Control


Mechanisms and policies that restrict access to computer resources and/or facilities.




Access control is the protection of resources with technical, regulatory and organizational measures against access or use by unauthorized entities.



The management and authorisation process of controlling access to Roles, Resources and Services by Identities and Accounts. Roles are a pre-packaging of resources and services. Resources and services can be any object for which access can be controlled, such as hardware, software, devices, equipment, buildings, doors, and so on. If the role names (or descriptions) are based on one or more attributes directly related to the roles of an identity (e.g. a position title, location, function) it will enable dynamic role provisioning as a by-product of existing business processes - for example LAN access, email, building access. If the role names are not based on identity attributes (e.g. a particular software package, a PDA, internet access), they are a static role that is provisioned on a discretionary basis (i.e. an identity must request them in addition to the dynamic roles). The assigning of access rights may be permanent or temporary, and may only be valid for a single session. Also see Authorisation, RBAC and GBAC. This process is not to be confused with the registration and authentication of an identity; access is part of the risk/trust relationship that determines what a user is permitted to do, not who they are.

The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including the prevention of use of a resource in an unauthorized manner.

The prevention of unauthorized use of a resource, including

the prevention of use of a resource in an unauthorized manner.








Protection of resources against unauthorized access; a process by which use of resources is regulated according to a security policy and is permitted by only authorized system entities according to that policy.

The act of mediating requested access to a resource based on privilege attributes of the requester and control attributes of the requested resource.



Limiting access to information system resources only to authorized users, programs, processes, or other systems.

a procedure used to determine if an entity should be granted access to resources, facilities, services, or information based on pre-established rules and specific rights or authority associated with the requesting party


A procedure used to determine if an entity should be granted access to resources, facilities, services, or information based on pre-established rules and specific rights or authority associated with the requesting party.

a procedure used to determine if an entity should be granted access to resources, facilities, services, or information based on pre-established rules and specific rights or authority associated with the requesting party.

a procedure used to determine if an entity should be granted access to resources, facilities, services, or information based on pre-established rules and specific rights or authority associated with the requesting party.







The process of granting or denying specific requests: 1) obtain and use information and related information processing services; and 2) enter specific physical facilities (e.g., Federal buildings, military establishments, border crossing entrances).

The process of granting or denying specific requests to: 1) obtain and use information and related information processing services; and 2) enter specific physical facilities (e.g., Federal buildings, military establishments, border crossing entrances).

SOURCE: FIPS 201; CNSSI-4009


access control information



















Any information used for access control purposes, including contextual information. Contextual information might include source IP address, encryption strength, the type of operation being requested, time of day, etc. Portions of access control information may be specific to a request itself, some may be associated with the connection via which a request is transmitted, and others (for example, time of day) may be “environmental”.



















access control list (ACL or ACI)









The security settings of an Application or Platform. Indicates the ability of an Account to read a file (or all the files) in a directory, to write to the files, and to execute the programs.

























An access control list connects a user or group of users to one or more security entitlements. For example, users in group "accounting" are granted the entitlement "read-only" to the data "budget file."


1. A list of permissions associated with an object. The list specifies who or what is allowed to access the object and what operations are allowed to be performed on the object.

2. A mechanism that implements access control for a system resource by enumerating the system entities that are permitted to access the resource and stating, either implicitly or explicitly, the access modes granted to each entity.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

A register of:

1. users (including groups, machines, processes) who have been given permission to use a particular system resource, and

2. the types of access they have been permitted.

SOURCE: SP800-12


access control mechanism




































Security safeguards (i.e., hardware and software features, physical controls, operating procedures, management procedures, and various combinations of these) designed to detect and deny unauthorized access and permit authorized access to an information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


access deactivation


































When termination happens, user access rights relating to an organization's systems and applications must be removed. This removal is called access deactivation.




access level




































A category within a given security classification limiting entry or system connectivity to only authorized persons.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


access list




































Roster of individuals authorized admittance to a controlled area.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


Access Management System

The collection of systems and or services associated with specific on-line resources and/or services that together derive the decision about whether to allow a given individual to gain access to those resources or make use of those services.





































access point




































A device that logically connects wireless client devices operating in infrastructure to one another and provides access to a distribution system, if connected, which is typically an organization's enterprise wired network.

SOURCE: SP 800-48; SP 800-121


access profile




































Association of a user with a list of protected objects the user may access.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


access rights



















A description of the type of authorized interactions a subject can have with a resource. Examples include read, write, execute, add, modify, and delete.



















access support


































Users may sometimes experience difficulty in relation to their security privileges. They will then typically contact a support analyst for assistance, and that person will adjust their access rights.




access type




































Privilege to perform action on an object. Read, write, execute, append, modify, delete, and create are examples of access types. See write.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


account









An instance of an Identity. An Identity may have multiple Accounts. Usually associated with a single computer application or platform, but also applies to such things as bank accounts, utilities and telephone accounts.










Typically a formal business agreement for providing regular dealings and services between a principal and business service providers.


A formal business agreement providing for regular dealings and services between a Principal and a service provider [Merriam-Webster]

















account linkage



















A method of relating accounts at two different providers that represent the same principal so that the providers can communicate about the principal. Account linkage can be established through the sharing of attributes or through identity federation.


See identity federation.

















account management, user




































Involves

1) the process of requesting, establishing, issuing, and closing user accounts;

2) tracking users and their respective access authorizations; and

3) managing these functions.

SOURCE: SP 800-12


account termination date


































An account has a termination date if logins will not be possible after a given time/date.




accountability























Process allowing auditing of IS activities to be traced to a source that may then be held responsible.













The security goal that generates the requirement for actions of an entity to be traced uniquely to that entity. This supports non-repudiation, deterrence, fault isolation, intrusion detection and prevention, and after-action recovery and legal action.

SOURCE: SP 800-27

Principle that an individual is entrusted to safeguard and control equipment, keying material, and information and is answerable to proper authority for the loss or misuse of that equipment or information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accounting legend code (ALC)




































Numeric code used to indicate the minimum accounting controls required for items of accountable communications security (COMSEC) material within the COMSEC Material Control System.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accounting number




































Number assigned to an item of COMSEC material to facilitate its control.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accreditation


the process of mapping information contained in either the SAML Assertion or the public key certificate with the Agency Application's own database of users.










The process used to achieve formal recognition that an organization has agreed to the EAP operating rules and is competent to perform assessments using the Service Assessment Criteria.


The process used to achieve formal recognition that an organization has agreed to the operating rules defined in the AAS (Assurance Assessment Scheme) and is competent to perform assessments using the Service Assessment Criteria.








The process used to achieve formal recognition that an organization has agreed to the IAEG operating rules and is competent to perform assessments using the Service Assessment Criteria.

Procedure by which an authoritative body declares that an assessor has satisfied the designated criteria for

assessing a PKI component.













The official management decision given by a senior agency official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls. See Authorization.

SOURCE: FIPS 200

Formal declaration by a Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA) or Principal Accrediting Authority (PAA) that an information system is approved to operate at an acceptable level of risk, based on the implementation of an approved set of technical, managerial, and procedural safeguards. See Authorization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

The authorization action; granting an authority to perform a defined service.

accreditation authority




































See Authorizing Official.

Assesses and validates that identity providers, attribute providers, relying parties, and identity media adhere to an agreed upon Trust Framework.

accreditation boundary




































1. Identifies the information resources covered by an accreditation decision, as distinguished from separately accredited information resources that are interconnected or with which information is exchanged via messaging. Synonymous with Security Perimeter.

2. For the purposes of identifying the Protection Level for confidentiality of a system to be accredited, the system has a conceptual boundary that extends to all intended users of the system, both directly and indirectly connected, who receive output from the system. See authorization boundary.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accreditation package




































The evidence provided to the authorizing official to be used in the security accreditation decision process. Evidence includes, but is not limited to: 1) the system security plan; 2) the assessment results from the security certification; and 3) the plan of action and milestones.

SOURCE: SP 800-37

Product comprised of a System Security Plan (SSP) and a report documenting the basis for the accreditation decision.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accrediting authority




































Synonymous with Designated Accrediting Authority (DAA). See also Authorizing Official.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


accrediting body























A recognized entity that accredits an assessor or evaluator as being qualified to perform assessments of CAs or other PKI components, applying designated criteria (such as standards derived from the certificate policies adopted by the policy-adopting body).















activation data























Data values, other than keys, that are required to operate cryptographic modules and that need to be protected e.g., a PIN, a pass-phrase, or a key share.













Private data, other than keys, that are required to access cryptographic modules.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


active attack




































An attack that alters a system or data.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


active content




































Electronic documents that can carry out or trigger actions automatically on a computer platform without the intervention of a user.

SOURCE: SP 800-28

Software in various forms that is able to automatically carry out or trigger actions on a computer platform without the intervention of a user.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


active role



















A role that a system entity has donned when performing some operation, for example accessing a resource.



















active security testing




































Security testing that involves direct interaction with a target, such as sending packets to a target.

SOURCE: SP 800-115


add-on security




































Incorporation of new hardware, software, or firmware safeguards in an operational information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


address











An address is the identifier for a specific termination point

and is used for routing to this termination point.













An address is the identifier for a specific termination point (and is used for routing to this termination point).


An identifier for a specific termination point that is used for routing.

An identifier for a specific termination point that is used for routing.

An address is the identifier for a specific termination point (and is used for routing to this termination point).










adequate security




































Security commensurate with the risk and the magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; FIPS 200; OMB Circular A-130, App. III


Security commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm resulting from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to or modification of information.

Note: This includes assuring that information systems operate effectively and provide appropriate confidentiality, integrity, and availability, through the use of cost-effective management, personnel, operational, and technical controls.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


administrative account




































A user account with full privileges on a computer.

SOURCE: SP-800-69


administrative authority




An organization responsible for the management of an administrative domain.


































administrative domain




A boundary for the management of all business and technical aspects related to:

1. A claims provider;

2. A relying party; or

3. A relying party that serves as its own claims provider.















An environment or context that is defined by some combination of one or more administrative policies, Internet Domain Name registrations, civil legal entities (for example, individuals, corporations, or other formally organized entities), plus a collection of hosts, network devices and the interconnecting networks (and possibly other traits), plus (often various) network services and applications running upon them. An administrative domain may contain or define one or more security domains. An administrative domain may encompass a single site or multiple sites. The traits defining an administrative domain may, and in many cases will, evolve over time. Administrative domains may interact and enter into agreements for providing and/or consuming services across administrative domain boundaries.



















administrative safeguards




































Administrative actions, policies, and procedures to manage the selection, development, implementation, and maintenance of security measures to protect electronic health information and to manage the conduct of the covered entity's workforce in relation to protecting that information.

SOURCE: SP 800-66


administrator



















A person who installs or maintains a system (for example, a SAML-based security system) or who uses it to manage system entities, users, and/or content (as opposed to application purposes; see also End User). An administrator is typically affiliated with a particular administrative domain and may be affiliated with more than one administrative domain.



















administrator lockout


































An administrator lockout is a flag set by an administrator to disable logins on an account.

Administrator lockouts normally precede permanent deletion of the account, and provide an opportunity to retrieve data from the account before it is removed.

Note that on some systems and applications, intruder lockouts and administrator lockouts are entangled (they use the same flag). This is a poor but common design.




advance encryption standard (AES)




































The Advanced Encryption Standard specifies a U.S. Government-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. This standard specifies the Rijndael algorithm, a symmetric block cipher that can process data blocks of 128 bits, using cipher keys with lengths of 128, 192, and 256 bits.

SOURCE: FIPS 197

A U.S. Government-approved cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


advance key processor (AKP)




































A cryptographic device that performs all cryptographic functions for a management client node and contains the interfaces to 1) exchange information with a client platform, 2) interact with fill devices, and 3) connect a client platform securely to the primary services node (PRSN).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


advisory




































Notification of significant new trends or developments regarding the threat to the information systems of an organization. This notification may include analytical insights into trends, intentions, technologies, or tactics of an adversary targeting information systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


affected individual























In the context of key recovery, a person whose private or commercial interest is affected by the use, misuse, or inability to access the information.















affiliate































An entity that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with another entity.







affiliation, affiliation group



















A set of system entities that share a single namespace (in the federated sense) of identifiers for principals.


An affiliation is a set of one or more entities, described by providerID's, who may perform Liberty interactions as a member of the set. An affiliation is referenced by exactly one affiliationID, and is administered by exactly one entity identified by their providerID. Members of an affiliation may invoke services either as a member of the affiliation (using affiliationID), or individually (using their providerID). Affiliation and affiliation group are equivalent terms.

















agency


A Government owned corporation, which is considered a RP or CSP in regard to the Federation.





















Agency is a relationship between two parties in which one party (agent) has the authority to act on behalf of another (principal), and any acts by an agent on behalf of the principal legally bind the principal.













Any executive department, military department, government corporation, government controlled corporation, or other establishment in the executive branch of the government (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency, but does not include: 1) the Government Accountability Office; 2) the Federal Election Commission; 3) the governments of the District of Columbia and of the territories and possessions of the United States, and their various subdivisions; or 4) government-owned contractor-operated facilities, including laboratories engaged in national defense research and production activities.

SOURCE: FIPS 200; 44 U.S.C., Sec. 3502

ALSO SEE Executive Agency.


agency application (AA)


E-Government applications that perform some business function online. If an E-Government application has multiple interfaces (e.g., administration and service application), each interface with distinct authentication requirements is considered a stand-alone AA. AAs manage all Business Transactions and all End-User authorization decisions.




































agency certification authority




































A CA that acts on behalf of an Agency, and is under the operational control of an Agency.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


agent



A computer system or device that has been delegated (authority, responsibility, a function, etc.) by and acts for a Party (in exercising the authority, carrying out the responsibility, performing the function, etc.).




Any individual, organization or electronic entity that creates, filters, gathers and/or publishes reputation data. Doing so enables entrance into the OpenPrivacy system for purposes of joining the anonymous demographics marketplace. Agents have an internal state and can initiate communications with peers when set conditions are met.

A computer system or device that has been delegated (authority, responsibility, a function, etc.) by and acts for a legal entity/party (in exercising the authority, carrying out the responsibility, performing the function, etc.).



A computer system or device that has been delegated (authority, responsibility, a function, etc.) by and acts for a Party (in exercising the authority, carrying out the responsibility, performing the function, etc.).






A computer system or device that has been delegated (authority, responsibility, a function, etc.) by and acts for a Party (in exercising the authority, carrying out the responsibility, performing the function, etc.).







An entity that acts on behalf of another entity


An entity that acts on behalf of another entity.

An entity that acts on behalf of another entity.

An entity that acts on behalf of another entity.






An agent is another term for a target connector.


A program used in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that sends malicious traffic to hosts based on the instructions of a handler.

SOURCE: SP 800-61

A program acting on behalf of a person or organization.

SOURCE: SP 800-95


agreement


















Means this Identity Management Services Agreement, including all schedules and exhibits, as amended from time to time.




















AL












See assurance level Applicant. An individual or person acting as a proxy for a machine or corporate entity who is the subject of an identity proofing process.


See Assurance Level








See assurance level.
















alert




































Notification that a specific attack has been directed at an organization's information systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


alias


































An alias is a local ID that a user has on a given system which is different from the user's global ID.




alliance











An agreement between two or more independent Entities that defines how they will relate to each other and how they jointly conduct activities.













An agreement between two or more independent Entities that defines how they will relate to each other and how they jointly conduct activities.


An agreement between two or more independent entities that defines how they relate to each other and how they jointly conduct activities.

An agreement between two or more independent entities that defines how they relate to each other and how they jointly conduct activities.

An agreement between two or more independent Entities that defines how they will relate to each other and how they jointly conduct activities.










alternate COMSEC custodian




































Individual designated by proper authority to perform the duties of the COMSEC custodian during the temporary absence of the COMSEC custodian.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


alternate work site




































Governmentwide, national program allowing Federal employees to work at home or at geographically convenient satellite offices for part of the work week (e.g., telecommuting).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


analysis




































The examination of acquired data for its significance and probative value to the case.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


ancillary services























Services other than certificate lifecycle services, performed in support of digital signatures and other uses of certificates, and in support of other related areas of secure electronic commerce.















annual conformity review (ACR)














Review undertaken annually by the ARB (Assurance Review Board) of all Grantees as a positive check and reminder that their conformity to the appropriate agreement, and therefore the requirements of the AAS, remains their obligation.
























anomaly-based detection




































The process of comparing definitions of what activity is considered normal against observed events to identify significant deviations.

SOURCE: SP 800-94


anonym








An anonym is an anonymous identifier. This means that the identifier is not linked to it's owning legal entity. So long as there is some information that links an identifier to its owning legal entity, it is not an anonym — at best, the identifier can be a pseudonym.






























anonymity






Anonymity refers to the quality or state of being not identifiable within the set of all possible entities that could cause an action and that might be addressed.


Anonymity is an attribute of an identity within an interaction which indicates if the identity is anonymous or unanonymous.

The ability of an Identity to keep its Entity secret from everyone. Literally means "no name". It must be “persistent” which makes it difficult, if not impossible, to remain truly anonymous because details deduced over time may be joined with other details and republished (unless there are privacy laws preventing it). For example, a prepaid mobile phone can allow the purchaser to remain anonymous until a pattern of use is established. Also see Pseudonym.

a. Ability to allow anonymous access to services, which avoid tracking of user's personal information and user behavior such as user location, frequency of a service usage, and soon.

b. Lack of any capability to ascertain identity.

c. The quality or state of being anonymous which is the condition of having a name or identity that is unknown or concealed.

i. Ability to allow anonymous access to services, which avoid tracking of user's personal information and user behaviour such as user location, frequency of a ser-vice usage, and so on.

ii. Lack of any capability to ascertain identity.

iii. The quality or state of being anonymous, which is the condition of having a name or identity that is unknown or concealed.








The quality or state of being anonymous, which is the condition of having a name or identity that is unknown or concealed.





The property that an entity cannot be identified within a set of entities.


A situation where an entity cannot be identified within a set of entities.

A situation where an entity cannot be identified within a set of entities.

The property that an entity cannot be identified within a set of entities.










anonymize































The removal of any person-related information that could be used to identify a specific individual.







anonymous





































Not named or identified. Anonymous transactions allow for information exchange between parties without the need to identify the parties involved.

anonymous identity








An anonymous identity is an identity that is not bound or linked to an entity.






























anti-jam




































Countermeasures ensuring that transmitted information can be received despite deliberate jamming attempts.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


anti-spoof




































Countermeasures taken to prevent the unauthorized use of legitimate Identification & Authentication (I&A) data, however it was obtained, to mimic a subject different from the attacker.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


antispyware software




































A program that specializes in detecting both malware and non-malware forms of spyware.

SOURCE: SP 800-69


antivirus software




































A program that monitors a computer or network to identify all major types of malware and prevent or contain malware incidents.

SOURCE: SP 800-83


applicant












An individual or person acting as a proxy for a machine or corporate entity who is the subject of an identity proofing process.


An individual or person acting as a proxy for a machine or

corporate entity who is the subject of an identity proofing process.








An individual or person acting as a proxy for a machine or corporate entity who is the subject of an identity proofing process.













An individual applying for a PIV Card/credential. The Applicant may be a current or prospective Federal hire, a Federal employee, or a contractor.

The subscriber is sometimes called an “applicant” after applying to a certification authority for a certificate, but before the certificate issuance procedure is completed.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


applicant (accreditation)














An Audit Organization applying to Kantara Initiative for accreditation under the AAS.
























application









A software system, usually a business solution or end user tool.


























A hardware/software system implemented to satisfy a particular set of requirements. In this context, an application incorporates a system used to satisfy a subset of requirements related to the verification or identification of an end user's identity so that the end user's identifier can be used to facilitate the end user's interaction with the system.

The use of information resources (information and information technology) to satisfy a specific set of user requirements.

SOURCE: SP 800-37

Software program that performs a specific function directly for a user and can be executed without access to system control, monitoring, or administrative privileges.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


application content filtering




































Application content filtering is performed by a software proxy agent to remove or quarantine viruses that may be contained in email attachments, to block specific Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) types, or to filter other active content such as Java, JavaScript, and ActiveX Controls.

SOURCE: SP 800-41


application migration


































Vendors release new versions of their software all the time. When this happens, customers often choose to upgrade. Upgrades may require data from the old system, including data about users, to be migrated to the new system. An identity management system can be used to aid in this migration process.




application owner


































An application's owner is a person in a business organization who may have authorized purchase of the application and is in any case responsible for the use of that system. This is a business rather than technical role.




application specific identifier (ASID)




An identifier that is used in an application to link a specific subject to data in the application.


































applications inventory









A comprehensive repository of information about each Application, such as name, id, locations, business owner, system manager, platform, language, frequency of revalidation, users, and so on. Used to assist management in licensing, distribution, support, provisioning and auditing.





























approval












The process by which the EAP Board accepts the compliance of a certified service and the ETSP responsible for that service commits to upholding the EAP Rules.


The process by which the ARB accepts the compliance of a certified service and the CSP responsible for that service commits to upholding the Rules as defined in the AAS.








The process by which the IAEG Board accepts the compliance of a certified service and the CSP responsible for that service commits to upholding the IAEG Rules.
















approval to operate (ATO)




































The official management decision issued by a DAA or PAA to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the residual risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


approval workflow


































An approval workflow is a business process where human actors may enter, review, approve, reject and/or implement a change request.




approve























Procedure by which an assessor/evaluator declares that a certification authority or other PKI component has satisfied designated criteria.















approved


Acceptance by the GSA to participate in the E-Authentication Federation, or other inclusion or use in the E-Authentication Federation.

































FIPS approved or NIST recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either (1) specified in a FIPS or a NIST recommendation or (2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST recommendation.

Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)-approved or National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either

1) specified in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, or

2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

FIPS-approved and/or NIST-recommended.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2

FIPS-approved and/or NIST-recommended. An algorithm or technique that is either 1) specified in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, 2) adopted in a FIPS or NIST Recommendation, or 3) specified in a list of NIST-approved security functions.

SOURCE: FIPS 186


approved credential


A Credential issued to an End-User by an Approved Credential Service of an Approved Credential Service Provider.




































approved credential service provider


A Credential Service Provider or authorized agent that has been Approved by the GSA to participate in the E-Authentication Federation.




































approved encryption












Any cryptographic algorithm or method specified in a FIPS or a NIST recommendation.


Any cryptographic algorithm or method specified in a FIPS or a NIST recommendation or equivalent, as established by a recognized national technical authority.








Any cryptographic algorithm or method specified in a FIPS or a NIST recommendation or equivalent, as established by a recognized national technical authority.
















approved exception


































An approved exception is a role violation which has been flagged as acceptable, and which consequently may be removed from violation reports and/or not corrected.




approved mode of operation




































A mode of the cryptographic module that employs only Approved security functions (not to be confused with a specific mode of an Approved security function, e.g., Data Encryption Standard Cipher-Block Chaining (DES CBC) mode).

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


approved party


An Approved Relying Party, Credential Service Provider, or authorized agent.




































approved relying party


A Relying Party or authorized agent that has been approved by the GSA to participate in the E-Authentication Federation.




































approved security function




































A security function (e.g., cryptographic algorithm, cryptographic key management technique, or authentication technique) that is either

a) specified in an Approved Standard;

b) adopted in an Approved Standard and specified either in an appendix of the Approved Standard or in a document referenced by the Approved Standard; or

c) specified in the list of Approved security functions.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


approved service












A certified service which has been granted an approval by the EAP Board.


A certified service which has been granted an approval by the Kantara Initiative Board of Trustees.








A certified service which has been granted an approval by the IAEG Board.
















architecture



































A highly structured specification of an acceptable approach within a framework for solving a specific problem. An architecture contains descriptions of all the components of a selected, acceptable solution while allowing certain details of specific components to be variable to satisfy related constraints (e.g., costs, local environment, user acceptability).



archival record























The key elements (e.g., data, metadata, and security tokens) that comprise the information pertaining to a business event such as enrollment, use, maintenance, and destruction of certificates. These elements typically need to be preserved for legal, regulatory, dispute resolution, auditing, investigation of potential security breaches, other operational, or historical purposes.















artifact



















See SAML Artifact.



















asserting entity





























An Entity making an identity representation or claim to a relying party within some request context.









asserting identity










An entity making an identity representation or claim to a relying party within some request context.

An entity making an identity representation or claim to a

relying party within some request context.



























asserting party



















Formally, the administrative domain that hosts one or more SAML authorities. Informally, an instance of a SAML authority.



















assertions

The identity information provided by an Identity Provider to a Service Provider.





an assertion is synonymous with a credential.



A claim, such as to be a particular Identity or a member of a Group. Usually requires proof via a credential, such as in a user-id and password pair. Also see Authentication.


i. A representation of an entity's identity or claim. (Compare with manifestation.)

ii. The identity information provided by an Identity Provider to a Service Provider.

A statement from a verifier to a relying party that contains identity or other information about a subscriber.


A statement from a verifier to a relying party that contains identity or other information about a subscriber.




A communication from Credential Service Provider to Relying Party confirming that the Subject qualifies for access to Relying Party's website or services in accordance with certain preestablished criteria as described on in Schedule A to this Agreement.

A piece of data produced by a SAML authority regarding either

an act of authentication performed on a subject, attribute

information about the subject, or authorization data applying to

the subject with respect to a specified resource.


An XML-based data structure defined by SAML. Assertions are collections of one or more statements, made by a SAML authority (also known as an issuer), such as an authentication statement or attribute statement. As used in Liberty, assertions typically concern things such as: an act of authentication performed by a Principal, attribute information about a Principal, or authorization permissions applying to a Principal with respect to a specified resource.

A statement from a verifier to a relying party that contains identity or other information about a subscriber.


a statement made (by an entity) without accompanying evidence of its validity.


A statement made by an entity without accompanying evidence of its validity.

A statement made by an entity without accompanying evidence of its validity.

A statement made (by an entity) without accompanying evidence of its validity.










assessment












A process used to evaluate an electronic trust service and the service provider using the requirements specified by one or more Service Assessment Criteria for compliance with all applicable requirements.


A process used to evaluate an electronic trust service and the service provider using the requirements specified by one or more Service Assessment Criteria for compliance with all applicable requirements.








A process used to evaluate an electronic trust service and the service provider using the requirements specified by one or more Service Assessment Criteria for compliance with all applicable requirements.

A procedure for determining whether an assessor, or a certification authority (or another PKI component) meets defined criteria.















assessment findings




































Results produced by the application of assessment procedures to security controls or control enhancements to achieve an assessment objective; the execution of a determination statement within an assessment procedure by an assessor that results in either a satisfied or other than satisfied condition.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assessment method




































One of three types of actions (i.e., examine, interview, test) taken by assessors in obtaining evidence during an assessment.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assessment object




































The item (i.e., specifications, mechanisms, activities, individuals) upon which an assessment method is applied during an assessment.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assessment objective




































A set of determination statements that expresses the desired outcome for the assessment of a security control or control enhancement.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assessment procedure




































A set of assessment objectives and an associated set of assessment methods and assessment objects.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assessment report























The result of an assessment of the specified security features of a PKI component.















assessor






















A person or corporate entity who performs an assessment.

One who undertakes an assessment of a certification authority (or another PKI component).















Assessor of IPs/CSPs












A person or corporate entity who performs an assessment.


A person or corporate entity who performs an assessment.
























asset











Anything that has value to the organization, its business,

its operations and its continuity.

























A major application, general support system, high impact program, physical plant, mission critical system, personnel, equipment, or a logically related group of systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


assurance









A level of risk associated with an Authentication.

A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of the Identity Management capabilities accurately mediate and enforce the security policies understood between the Relying Party and the identity provider.

A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture

of the Identity Management capabilities accurately mediate and enforce the security policies understood between the Relying Party and the Identity Provider.












Grounds for confidence that an entity meets specified security requirements.

see authentication assurance and identity assurance


See authentication assurance and identity assurance.

See authentication assurance and identity assurance.

See authentication assurance and identity assurance.








Grounds for confidence that the other four security goals (integrity, availability, confidentiality, and accountability) have been adequately met by a specific implementation. "Adequately met" includes (1) functionality that performs correctly, (2) sufficient protection against unintentional errors (by users or software), and (3) sufficient resistance to intentional penetration or by-pass.

SOURCE: SP 800-27

Measure of confidence that the security features, practices, procedures, and architecture of an information system accurately mediates and enforces the security policy.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


assurance assessment scheme (AAS)














A program which defines the process for assessing the operating standards of certain players in the Identity and Credential Assurance Management space against strict criteria, and grants to candidates of the Scheme the right to use the Kantara Initiative Mark, a symbol of trustworthy identity and credential management services, at specified Assurance Levels.
























assurance case




































A structured set of arguments and a body of evidence showing that an information system satisfies specific claims with respect to a given quality attribute.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


assurance framework









A methodology for managing Transaction Risk within a Channel, based on the combination of Registration strength and Credential strength. Usually presented as a simple model with X and Y axes. For example; the Australian Government Assurance Framework (AGAF).





























assurance levels


The degree of certainty that the user has presented an identifier (a Credential in this context) that refers to his or her identity.







A level of risk associated with an Authentication.

A measure of confidence that the security features and architecture of the Identity

A quantitative expression of Assurance agreed between a Relying Party and an Identity Provider.

A degree of certainty that a claimant has presented a credential that refers to the claimant's identity. Each assurance level expresses a degree of confidence in the process used to establish the identity of the individual to whom the credential was issued and a degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued.

describes the strength of the identification and authentication

processes "“ i.e., it provides a basis for determining the degree to which a party to an electronic

business transaction can be confident: (1) that the identity information being presented actually represents the person named in it (e.g., that the person who was identified as Bill Gates really was Bill Gates, and not an imposter), and (2) that the person identified in the credential is the person who is actually engaging in the electronic transaction (e.g., that it is really Bill Gates on the remote device who is seeking access to a company's system, and not someone who stole his

password).

A degree of certainty that a claimant has presented a credential that refers to the claimant's identity. Each assurance level expresses a degree of confidence in the process used to establish

the identity of the individual to whom the credential was issued

and a degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued.








A degree of certainty that a claimant has presented a credential that refers to the claimant's identity. Each assurance level expresses a degree of confidence in the process used to establish the identity of the individual to whom the credential was issued and a degree of confidence that the individual who uses the credential is the individual to whom the credential was issued.

A particular point on a relative scale of assurance.

A quantitative expression that indicates the level of confidence in the binding between an entity and the presented identity information.


A level of confidence in the binding between an entity and the presented identity information.

A level of confidence in the binding between an entity and the presented identity information.

A quantitative expression that indicates the level of confidence in the binding between an entity and the presented identity information.










assurance review board (ARB)














The Assurance Review Board (ARB) is a sub-committee of the Board of Trustees, and is the operational authoritative body of the Kantara Identity Assurance Framework Assurance Assessment Scheme (AAS) certification program. It has delegated authority from the Kantara Initiative Board of Trustees (KIBoT) to undertake assessments of all types of applications for a Grant of Rights of Use of the Kantara Initiative Mark and shall make recommendations to the KIBoT for the award or denial of such Grants.
























assured information sharing




































The ability to confidently share information with those who need it, when and where they need it, as determined by operational need and an acceptable level of security risk.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


assured software




































Computer application that has been designed, developed, analyzed, and tested using processes, tools, and techniques that establish a level of confidence in it.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


asymmetric authentication method











A method of authentication, in which not all authentication information is shared by both entities.



























asymmetric cryptography




































SEE Public Key Cryptography.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


asymmetric crypotsystem























A system using two different but mathematically related keys, one for creating a digital signature or decrypting data, and another key for verifying a digital signature or encrypting data. Computer equipment and software utilizing such key pairs are often collectively termed an "asymmetric cryptosystem." For at least one key of the key pair, it should be computationally infeasible to calculate the complementary key of that pair.















asymmetric encryption


































Asymmetric encryption is encryption where matching pairs of keys are used. What is encrypted with one key in a matched pair can only be decrypted by the other key -- it cannot be decrypted with the original key, or with any other key.




asymmetric keys



































Two related keys, a public key and a private key, that are used to perform complementary operations, such as encryption and decryption or signature generation and signature verification.

Two related keys, a public key and a private key that are used to perform complementary operations, such as encryption and decryption or signature generation and signature verification.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


attack












An attempt to obtain a subscriber's token or to fool a verifier into believing that an unauthorized individual possesses a claimant's token.


An attempt to obtain a subscriber's token or to fool a verifier into believing that an unauthorized individual possesses a claimant's token.








An attempt to obtain a subscriber's token or to fool a verifier into believing that an unauthorized individual possesses a claimant's token.














An attempt to gain unauthorized access to system services, resources, or information, or an attempt to compromise system integrity.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

Any kind of malicious activity that attempts to collect, disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information system resources or the information itself.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


attack sensing and warning (AS&W)




































Detection, correlation, identification, and characterization of intentional unauthorized activity with notification to decision makers so that an appropriate response can be developed.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


attack signature




































A specific sequence of events indicative of an unauthorized access attempt.

SOURCE: SP 800-12

A characteristic byte pattern used in malicious code or an indicator, or set of indicators, that allows the identification of malicious network activities.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


attestation









The confirmation, corroboration or formal acceptance that something is correct. It is increasingly required by good corporate governance. For example; the "Sarbanes-Oxley" Act (SOX) requirements. Also see Revalidation.

























Attestation is synonymous with access certification. This term highlights the aspect of certification where stake-holders attest to the appropriateness of entitlements, rather than flagging those that should be removed. Both signing off on appropriate entitlements and flagging inappropriate ones should be done in tandem.




attribute


























Information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of the entity.

Information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of the entity.

Information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of the entity.









A named quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to someone or something. Attributes

can include personal qualities (e.g. age), ambient information such as location, or certifications

that serve as proof of a given capability.

attribute assertion



















An assertion that conveys information about attributes of a subject.



















attribute authority



















A system entity that produces attribute assertions.

















An entity, recognized by the Federal Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Policy Authority or comparable Agency body as having the authority to verify the association of attributes to an identity.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


attribute-based access control




































Access control based on attributes associated with and about subjects, objects, targets, initiators, resources, or the environment. An access control rule set defines the combination of attributes under which an access may take place.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


attribute-based authorization




































A structured process that determines when a user is authorized to access information, systems, or services based on attributes of the user and of the information, system, or service.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


attribute class




















A predefined set of attributes, such as the constituents of a Principal's name (prefix, first name, middle name, last name, and suffix). Liberty entities may standardize such classes.

A predefined set of attributes, such as the constituents of a Principal's name (prefix, first name, middle name, last name, and suffix).

















attribute container





















A module comprised of a collection of attributes grouped together according to expected use patterns.

















attribute provider (AP)




















The attribute provider (AP) provides ID-PP information. Sometimes called a ID-PP provider, the AP is an ID-WSF web service that hosts the ID-PP.

An attribute provider (AP) provides Identity Personal Profile (ID-PP) information. Sometimes referred to as an ID-PP provider.
















Responsible for all the processes associated with establishing and maintaining a subject's identity attributes; they provide assertions of the attributes to the individuals, other providers,

and relying parties.

attribute type











That component of an attribute which indicates the class of

information given by that attribute.













That component of an attribute which indicates the class of information given by that attribute.


A component of an attribute that indicates the class of information given by that attribute.

A component of an attribute that indicates the class of information given by that attribute.

That component of an attribute which indicates the class of information given by that attribute.










attribute value











A particular instance of the class of information indicated by an attribute type.













A particular instance of the class of information indicated by an attribute type.


A particular instance of the class of information indicated by an attribute type.

A particular instance of the class of information indicated by an attribute type.

A particular instance of the class of information indicated by an attribute type.










attribute(s)

the information data elements in an attribute assertion you might make to another Federation participant concerning the identity of a person in your identity management system.

A single piece of information associated with an electronic identity database record.? Some attributes are general; others are personal.? Some subset of all attributes defines a unique individual.





An attribute is a distinct, measurable, physical or abstract named property belonging to an entity.



A type/value pair of information related to an Entity or Identity. It may be shared (eg nationality), or unique (eg DNA). A combination of attributes may be sufficient to satisfy an assertion. Usually a value in an identity repository (directory or database) collected directly or indirectly through registration, enrolment or access control. Also see Role.

1. Descriptive information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of an entity such as condition, quality or other information associated with that entity

2. Information of a particular type. In IdM, objects and object classes are composed of attributes

3. A distinct characteristic of an object. An object's attributes are said to describe the object. Objects' attributes are often specified in terms of their physical traits, such as size, shape, weight, and color, for real-world objects. Objects in

cyberspace might have attributes describing size, type of encoding, and network address.

i. Descriptive information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of an entity such as condition, quality or other information associated with that entity

ii. Information of a particular type. In the IdM, objects and object classes are composed of attributes.

iii. A distinct characteristic of an object. An object's attributes are said to describe the object. Objects' attributes are often specified in terms of their physical traits, such as size, shape, weight, and color, etc., for real-world objects. Objects in cyberspace might have attributes describing size, type of encoding, network address, etc.

A property associated with an individual.

Personal information concerning a specific category or characteristics of a given

identity, such as name, address, age, gender, title, salary, health, net worth, driver's license

number, Social Security number, etc.

A property associated with an individual.





A distinct characteristic of an object (in SAML, of a subject). An object's attributes are said to describe it. Attributes are often

specified in terms of physical traits, such as size, shape, weight, and color, etc., for real-world objects. Objects in cyberspace might have attributes describing size, type of encoding, network

address, and so on. Attributes are often represented as pairs of

"attribute name" and "attribute value(s)", e.g. "foo" has the value

'bar', "count" has the value 1, "gizmo" has the values "frob" and "2", etc. Often, these are referred to as "attribute value pairs". Note that Identifiers are essentially "distinguished attributes". See also Identifier and XML attribute.

A distinct characteristic of a Principal. A Principal's attributes are said to describe it.

A module comprised of a collection of attributes grouped together according to expected use patterns.

A property associated with an individual.


Information bound to an entity that specifies a characteristic of the entity.














attribution























In a legal context, the determination that a message or record was originated by a particular party. See authentication.

A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.














audit























Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures.













Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures, and to recommend necessary changes in controls, policies, or procedures.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

Independent review and examination of records and activities to assess the adequacy of system controls, to ensure compliance with established policies and operational procedures.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


audit data




































Chronological record of system activities to enable the reconstruction and examination of the sequence of events and changes in an event.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


audit log




































A chronological record of system activities. Includes records of system accesses and operations performed in a given period.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


audit reduction tools




































Preprocessors designed to reduce the volume of audit records to facilitate manual review. Before a security review, these tools can remove many audit records known to have little security significance. These tools generally remove records generated by specified classes of events, such as records generated by nightly backups.

SOURCE: SP 800-12; CNSSI-4009


audit (secret)











An independent review and examination of system records

and activities in order to test for adequacy of system controls,

to ensure compliance with established policy and operational procedures, to detect breaches in security, and to recommend any indicated changes in control, policy and procedures.



























audit organization














An organization which undertakes assessments of entities and their services to establish their conformity to or compliance with specific standards or other widely-recognized criteria. Specifically, in the context of the AAS, entities providing credentialing or identity management services which are claiming conformance to the IAF.
























audit review




































The assessment of an information system to evaluate the adequacy of implemented security controls, assure that they are functioning properly, identify vulnerabilities, and assist in implementation of new security controls where required. This assessment is conducted annually or whenever significant change has occurred and may lead to recertification of the information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


audit trail




































A record showing who has accessed an Information Technology (IT) system and what operations the user has performed during a given period.

SOURCE: SP 800-47

A chronological record that reconstructs and examines the sequence of activities surrounding or leading to a specific operation, procedure, or event in a security relevant transaction from inception to final result.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authenticate




































To confirm the identity of an entity when that identity is presented.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

To verify the identity of a user, user device, or other entity.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authenticated identity










A distinguishing identifier of a principal that has been assured through authentication.

A distinguishing identifier of a principal that has been assured

through authentication.










An identity, representing a system entity, which often is a Principal, that is asserted to have been the subject of a successful authentication.

















authenticated principal





















A Principal who has had his identity authenticated by an Identity Provider.

















authenticating authority





















Synonymous with authenticating identity provider or authenticating IdP. An identity provider that authenticated a Principal (see also authentication). In [LibertyAuthnContext], the authenticating authority is identified by the first occurring <AuthenticatingAuthority> element instance.

















authenticating entity





















A system entity that engages in the process of authenticating itself to another system entity, the latter typically being an Identity Provider (see also authentication). More formally, an authenticating system entity.







A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.










authentication

The process by which a person verifies or confirms their association with an electronic identifier.? For example, entering a password that is associated with an UserID or account name is assumed to verify that the user is the person to whom the UserID was issued.

Assertion-based authentication (i.e., authentication of PINs and Passwords) and certificate-based authentication.



providing a codified assurance of the identity of one entity to another.

Authentication is the corroboration of a claimed set of attributes or facts with a specified, or understood, level of confidence.


1. Authentication is the process of validating that it is indeed the owning entity that is using or deploying the owned identity in an interaction.

2. Authentication is the process whereby confidence is established in an assertion of identity. It is performed by cross-checking against one or more authenticators.

3. Authentication is the act of verifying that identity, where a verification consists in establishing, to the satisfaction of the verifier, that the sign signifies the entity.

The process of establishing an Identity to be used in a particular instance, by verifying an assertion (eg claiming to be the owner of a set of credentials). See Assertion. In principle the original issuer of a credential should be the one to authenticate it; in practice this may be problematic and methods have been devised to share the authentication process. Also see re-authentication, and mutual authentication.

The provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.

The provision of assurance of the claimed identity of an entity.

Authentication simply establishes identity, not what that identity is authorized to do or what access privileges he or she has.

The process of establishing or confirming that someone is who they claim to be.

Authentication simply establishes identity, not what that identity is authorized to do or what access privileges he or she has.

The process to verify that the

identification is, in fact, true.




To confirm a system entity's asserted principal identity with a

specified, or understood, level of confidence. [CyberTrust]

[SAMLAgree]

The process of verifying the ability of a communication party to "talk" in the name of a Principal.

Authentication is the process of confirming a system entity's asserted identity with a specified, or understood, level of confidence.

Authentication simply establishes identity, not what that identity is authorized to do or what access privileges he or she has.

The process of confirming an identity claimed by or for an entity. An authentication process is the second of two steps comprising: the identification step "“ presenting an identifier to the security system and the authentication step "“ presenting or generating authentication information that corroborates the binding between the entity and the identifier.




A process used to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.







Authentication is a process by which a user proves his identity to a system -- normally when logging in.

The process of establishing confidence of authenticity; in this case, in the validity of a person's identity and the PIV Card.

Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to resources in an information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-27; FIPS 200

The process of establishing confidence of authenticity.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

Encompasses identity verification, message origin authentication, and message content authentication.

SOURCE: FIPS 190

A process that establishes the origin of information or determines an entity's identity.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

The process of verifying the identity or other attributes claimed by or assumed of an entity (user, process, or device), or to verify the source and integrity of data.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

Verifying the identity of a user, process, or device, often as a prerequisite to allowing access to

resources in an information system.

authentication (entity)


























A process used to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.












authentication assertion



















An assertion that conveys information about a successful act of authentication that took place for a subject.


A SAML-based assertion that, in the Liberty specification suite, contains a <lib:AuthenticationStatement>. Note that the foregoing element is defined in a Liberty namespace. Also known as Liberty authentication assertion and ID-FF authentication assertion.

Liberty authentication assertions are formal XML extensions of SAML assertions [SAMLCore11].

Semantically, an assertion issuer is stating that the subject of the assertion authenticated with it (the issuer) at some point in time. Assertions are typically time-limited.

















authentication assurance
























Confidence reached in the authentication process, that the communication partner is the entity which it claims to be or is expected to be.


The degree of confidence reached in the authentication process, that the communication partner is the entity that it claims to be or is expected to be.

The degree of confidence reached in the authentication process, that the communication partner is the entity that it claims to be or is expected to be.

Confidence reached in the authentication process, that the communication partner is the entity which it claims to be or is expected to be.










authentication authority



















A system entity that produces authentication assertions.


A system entity that produces authentication assertions [SAMLGloss2]. In the Liberty architecture, it is typically an Identity Provider.

















authentication certificate











A security certificate that is guaranteed by an authentication

authority and that may be used to assure the identity of an entity.



























authentication code




































A cryptographic checksum based on an Approved security function (also known as a Message Authentication Code [MAC]).

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


authentication context (AC)





















Authentication Context is an extensible XML-based "schematic" description of authentication event characteristics [LibertyAuthnContext].

















authentication domain (AD)




















A formal community of Liberty-enabled entities that interact using a set of well-established common rules.

An Authentication Domain (AD) is a formal community of Liberty-enabled entities that interact using a set of well-known common rules.

















authentication, electronic




































The process of establishing confidence in user identities electronically presented to an information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-63


authentication exchange











A sequence of one or more transfers of exchange authentication

information (AI) for the purposes of performing an authentication.










See authentication protocol exchange.

















authentication factor


































An authentication factor is something a user presents to a system in order to prove his identity. It may be something he (and hopefully only he) knows, or proof of possession of a physical object, or a measurement of some physical characteristic (biometric) of the living human user. In other words, something the user knows, or something he has, or something he is.




authentication information











i. Information used to establish the validity of a claimed identity.

ii. Information used for authentication purposes.



























authentication initiator











The entity that starts an authentication exchange.



























authentication mechanism





















An authentication mechanism is a particular, identifiable, process or technique that results in a confirmation of a system entity's asserted identity with a specified, or understood, level of confidence. See also SASL mechanism. An authentication mechanism may be employed in the process of generating security tokens attesting to the authenticated identity of an authenticating entity. The ID-WSF Authentication Protocol specifies such a process [LibertyAuthn].















Hardware-or software-based mechanisms that force users to prove their identity before accessing data on a device.

SOURCE: SP 800-72; SP 800-124

Hardware or software-based mechanisms that forces users, devices, or processes to prove their identity before accessing data on an information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authentication mode




































A block cipher mode of operation that can provide assurance of the authenticity and, therefore, the integrity of data.

SOURCE: SP 800-38B


authentication period




































The maximum acceptable period between any initial authentication process and subsequent reauthentication processes during a single terminal session or during the period data is being accessed.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authentication protocol












A well-specified message exchange process that verifies possession of a token to remotely authenticate a claimant. Some authentication protocols also generate cryptographic keys that are used to protect an entire session, so that the data transferred in the session is cryptographically protected.


A well-specified message exchange process that verifies possession of a token to remotely authenticate a claimant. Some authentication protocols also generate cryptographic keys that are used to protect an entire session, so that the data transferred in the session is cryptographically protected.








A well-specified message exchange process that verifies possession of a token to remotely authenticate a claimant. Some authentication protocols also generate cryptographic keys that are used to protect an entire session, so that the data transferred in the session is cryptographically protected.














A well-specified message exchange process that verifies possession of a token to remotely authenticate a claimant. Some authentication protocols also generate cryptographic keys that are used to protect an entire session, so that the data transferred in the session is cryptographically protected.

SOURCE: SP 800-63

A well-specified message exchange process between a claimant and a verifier that enables the verifier to confirm the claimant's identity.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authentication protocol exchange





















Authentication protocol exchange is the term used in [RFC4422] to refer to the sequence of messages exchanged between the client and server as specified and governed by the particular SASL mechanism being employed to effect an act of authentication.

















authentication quality





















The level of assurance that a service provider can place in an authentication assertion it receives from an identity provider.

















authentication server





















The precise, specific role played by a server in the protocol message exchanges defined in the ID-WSF Authentication Protocol.

















authentication service consumer (AS consumer)





















A Web Service Consumer (WSC) implementing the client-side of the ID-WSF Authentication Service [LibertyAuthn].

















authentication service provider (AS provider)





















A Web Service Provider (WSP) implementing the server-side of the ID-WSF Authentication Service [LibertyAuthn].

















authentication session




















The period of time starting after A has authenticated B and until A stops trusting B's identity assertion and requires reauthentication. Also known as "session," it is the state between a successful login and a successful logout by the Principal.

The period of time starting after A has authenticated B and until A stops trusting B's identity assertion and requires reauthentication. Also known simply as a session, it is the state between a successful login and a successful logout by a Principal.

















authentication support


































Users may sometimes experience difficulty signing into a system or application. They may have forgotten their password or triggered an intruder lockout. In these cases, they may contact a support analyst for assistance, such as a password reset.




authentication tag




































A pair of bit strings associated to data to provide assurance of its authenticity.

SOURCE: SP 800-38B


authentication token




































Authentication information conveyed during an authentication exchange.

SOURCE: FIPS 196


authenticator








An authenticator is something which determines authenticity or which guarantees validity. An authenticator is usually an object, a piece of knowledge, or some characteristic of it's possessor. It is typically uniquely in the possession of an entity so that the entity can prove it's authenticity, in an interaction, by demonstrating that it has possession of the authenticator.





Something (usually uniquely in the possession of a person) that is used to determine authenticity; usually an object, an item of knowledge, or some characteristic of its possessor that is used to tie a person to an identity credential (such as by demonstrating that such person has possession of the authenticator). Also called a token. A password functions as an authenticator.























The means used to confirm the identity of a user, process, or device (e.g., user password or token).

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


authenticity













The property that data originated from its purported source.























The property of being genuine and being able to be verified and trusted; confidence in the validity of a transmission, a message, or message originator. See Authentication.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


authoritative identity provider











The Identity Provider responsible by law, industry practice, or system implementation for the definitive identity response to a query.



























authority




































Person(s) or established bodies with rights and responsibilities to exert control in an administrative sphere.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authorization

The process of determining whether a specific person should be allowed to gain access to an application or function, or to make use of a resource.? The resource manager then makes the access control decision, which also may take into account other factors such as time of day, location of the user, and/or load on the resource system.

Occurs when management authorizes a System based on an assessment of management, operational and technical controls.




Authorisation refers to

1. the permission of an authenticated entity to perform a defined action or to use a defined service/resource;

2. the process of determining, by evaluation of applicable permissions, whether an authenticated entity is allowed to have access to a particular resource.



What the Identity can do, in a given instance, as a result of proving an assertion.

The granting of rights, which includes the granting of access based on access rights.

The granting of rights, which includes the granting of access based on access rights.

Process of deciding what an individual ought to be allowed to do.

A process of controlling access to information or resources only to those specifically permitted to use them. The actions that an authenticated person or entity is permitted as a result of the authentication.

Process of deciding what an individual ought to be allowed to do.





The process of determining, by evaluating applicable access

control information, whether a subject is allowed to have the

specified types of access to a particular resource. Usually,

authorization is in the context of authentication. Once a subject is authenticated, it may be authorized to perform different types of access. [Taxonomy]

A right or a permission that is granted to a system entity to perform an action.

The process of determining, by evaluating applicable access control information, whether a subject is allowed to have the specified types of access to a particular resource. Usually, authorization is in the context of authentication. Once a subject is authenticated, it may be authorized to perform different types of access.

Process of deciding what an individual ought to be allowed to do.


The granting of rights, and, based on these rights, the granting of access.


The granting of rights and, based on these rights, the granting of access.

The granting of rights and, based on these rights, the granting of access.

The granting of rights, and, based on these rights, the granting of access.








The official management decision given by a senior agency official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.

SOURCE: SP 800-37

Access privileges granted to a user, program, or process or the act of granting those privileges.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

The official management decision to authorize operation of an information system and explicitly

accept the risk operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), assets, or

individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.

The act of approving or giving consent.

authorization boundary




































All components of an information system to be authorized for operation by an authorizing official and excludes separately authorized systems, to which the information system is connected.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009; SP 800-53


authorization decision



















The result of an act of authorization. The result may be negative, that is, it may indicate that the subject is not allowed any access to the resource.



















authorization decision assertion



















Assertion An assertion that conveys information about an authorization decision.



















authorization reminders


































Authorizers in an approvals process may not respond to invitations to review a change request in a timely manner. When this happens, automatic reminders may be sent to them, asking them again to review change requests.




authorization (to operate)




































The official management decision given by a senior organizational official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


authorize processing




































See Authorization.

SOURCE: SP 800-53


authorized assessor























In the context of key recovery, an entity that accesses information when authorized by either criminal or civil justice systems.















authorized purposes


















The purposes for which the Relying Party may use the Credential as described in Schedule B to this Agreement.




















authorized vendor




































Manufacturer of information assurance equipment authorized to produce quantities in excess of contractual requirements for direct sale to eligible buyers. Eligible buyers are typically U.S. Government organizations or U.S. Government contractors.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authorized vendor program (AVP)




































Program in which a vendor, producing an information systems security (INFOSEC) product under contract to NSA, is authorized to produce that product in numbers exceeding the contracted requirements for direct marketing and sale to eligible buyers. Eligible buyers are typically U.S. Government organizations or U.S. Government contractors. Products approved for marketing and sale through the AVP are placed on the Endorsed Cryptographic Products List (ECPL).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


authorizer


































Changes to user profiles or entitlements may be subject to approval before they are acted on. In cases where approval is required, one or more authorizers are assigned that responsibility.




authorizing official




































Official with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals. Synonymous with Accreditation Authority.

SOURCE: FIPS 200

Senior federal official or executive with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

A senior (federal) official or executive with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating an information system at an acceptable level of risk to organizational operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), organizational assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation.

SOURCE: SP 800-53


authorizing official designated representative




































Individual selected by an authorizing official to act on their behalf in coordinating and carrying out the necessary activities required during the security certification and accreditation of an information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-37

An organizational official acting on behalf of an authorizing official in carrying out and coordinating the required activities associated with security authorization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


automated key transport




































The transport of cryptographic keys, usually in encrypted form, using electronic means such as a computer network (e.g., key transport/agreement protocols).

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


automated password generator




































An algorithm which creates random passwords that have no association with a particular user.

SOURCE: FIPS 181


automated provisioning


































Automated provisioning systems typically operate on a data feed from a system of record, such as a human relations (HR) system and automatically create login IDs and related logical access rights for newly hired employees or contractors.

It should be noted that automated provisioning normally operates without a user interface -- i.e., data flows in from one system and out to one or more other systems, without any further user input in between.

Auto-provisioning reduces IT support costs and can shorten the time required to provision new users with requisite access rights.




automated security monitoring




































Use of automated procedures to ensure security controls are not circumvented or the use of these tools to track actions taken by subjects suspected of misusing the information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


automated termination


































Automated termination systems typically operate on a data feed from a system of record, such as a human relations (HR) system and automatically disable access rights for existing users when they have left an organization.

It should be noted that automated termination normally operates without a user interface -- i.e., data flows in from one system and out to one or more other systems, without any further user input in between.

Auto-termination reduces IT support costs and can make access deactivation both faster and more reliable than manual processes.




automatic escalation


































In the event that an authorizer has been invited to review a change request, has not responded, has been sent reminders, has nonetheless not responded, and has not delegated his authority, an identity management system may automatically select an alternate authorizer, rather than allow the approvals process to stall. Automatically rerouting requests to alternate authorizers is called escalation.




automatic password synchronization


































Automatic password synchronization is a synonym for transparent password synchronization.




automatic remote rekeying




































Procedure to rekey a distant crypto-equipment electronically without specific actions by the receiving terminal operator. See manual remote rekeying.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


autonomous system (AS)




































One or more routers under a single administration operating the same routing policy.

SOURCE: SP 800-54


availability


State of usability and functionality to provide operational effectiveness.





















Timely, reliable access to data and information services for authorized users.













Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-27; SP 800-60; FIPS 200; FIPS 199; 44 U.S.C., Sec. 3542

The property of being accessible and useable upon demand by an authorized entity.

SOURCE: CNSI-4009

Ensuring timely and reliable access to and use of information.

awareness (information security)




































Activities which seek to focus an individual's attention on an (information security) issue or set of issues.

SOURCE: SP 800-50


back channel



















Back channel refers to direct communications between two system entities without "redirecting" messages through another system entity such as an HTTP client (e.g. A user agent). See also front channel.



















back door




































Typically unauthorized hidden software or hardware mechanism used to circumvent security controls.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


backdoor




































An undocumented way of gaining access to a computer system.

SOURCE: SP 800-82


backup




































A copy of files and programs made to facilitate recovery, if necessary.

SOURCE: SP 800-34; CNSSI-4009


banner




































Display on an information system that sets parameters for system or data use.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


banner grabbing




































The process of capturing banner information"”such as application type and version"”that is transmitted by a remote port when a connection is initiated.

SOURCE: SP 800-115


baseline




































Hardware, software, databases, and relevant documentation for an information system at a given point in time.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


baseline security




































The minimum security controls required for safeguarding an IT system based on its identified needs for confidentiality, integrity, and/or availability protection.

SOURCE: SP 800-16


baselining




































Monitoring resources to determine typical utilization patterns so that significant deviations can be detected.

SOURCE: SP 800-61


bastion host




































A bastion host is typically a firewall implemented on top of an operating system that has been specially configured and hardened to be resistant to attack.

SOURCE: SP 800-41

A special-purpose computer on a network specifically designed and configured to withstand attacks.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


bearer token





















A bearer token is a form of security token having the property of connoting some attribute(s) to its holder, or bearer. In [LibertySecMech], bearer tokens connote identity and they consist essentially of credentials of some form, e.g., SAML assertions [wss-saml11].

















behavioral outcome




































What an individual who has completed the specific training module is expected to be able to accomplish in terms of IT security-related job performance.

SOURCE: SP 800-16


benign




































Condition of cryptographic data that cannot be compromised by human access.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


benign environment




































Condition of cryptographic data that cannot be compromised by human access.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


bias







While reputations generally reflect the sum of many opinions of a single reference, a bias is an accumulation of opinions that represent the views of a single principal. Biases may be divided by area or type of reference (such as groups of political or demographically descriptive opinions). A RCE uses one or more Bias collections in the course of its calculations.































binding


























An explicit established association, bonding, or tie.

An explicit established association, bonding, or tie.

An explicit established association, bonding, or tie.








Process of associating two related elements of information.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

An acknowledgement by a trusted third party that associates an entity's identity with its public key. This may take place through (1) a certification authority's generation of a public key certificate, (2) a security officer's verification of an entity's credentials and placement of the entity's public key and identifier in a secure database, or (3) an analogous method.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

Process of associating a specific communications terminal with a specific cryptographic key or associating two related elements of information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


binding documents


E-Authentication Federation documents, in addition to the Participation Agreements, Business Rules and Operating Rules, that RPs and CSPs are required to adhere to and comply with.




































binding, protocol binding











An explicit established association, bonding, or tie.








Generically, a specification of the mapping of some given protocol's messages, and perhaps message exchange patterns, onto another protocol, in a concrete fashion. For example, the mapping of the SAML <AuthnRequest> message onto HTTP is one example of a binding. The mapping of that same SAML message onto SOAP is another binding. In the SAML context, each binding is given a name in the pattern "SAML xxx binding".




Process of associating two related elements of information. For example, a certificate binds its subject to a particular public key.

An explicit established association, bonding, or tie.














biometric authentication


































Biometric authentication requires that some measurement of the user's body, metabolism or behaviour is compared to a similar measurement enrolled earlier. A successful match is used as a successful authentication.




biometric information



































The stored electronic information pertaining to a biometric. This information can be in terms of raw or compressed pixels or in terms of some characteristic (e.g., patterns).

The stored electronic information pertaining to a biometric. This information can be in terms of raw or compressed pixels or in terms of some characteristic (e.g., patterns.)

SOURCE: FIPS 201


biometric recognition


























Automated recognition of individuals based on observation of behavioural and biological characteristics.

Automated recognition of individuals based on observation of behavioural and biological characteristics.











biometric system



































An automated system capable of the following:

+ Capturing a biometric sample from an end user

+ Extracting biometric data from that sample

+ Comparing the extracted biometric data with data contained in one or more references

+ Deciding how well they match

+ Indicating whether or not an identification or verification of identity has been achieved.

An automated system capable of:

1) capturing a biometric sample from an end user;

2) extracting biometric data from that sample;

3) comparing the extracted biometric data with data contained in one or more references;

4) deciding how well they match; and

5) indicating whether or not an identification or verification of identity has been achieved.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


biometric verification









Any means by which a person can be either a) Identified or b) Verified (authenticated), by evaluating one or more distinguishing biological traits. An identification system (eg AFIS) consists of the original trait and a database of stored traits, by comparing of a sample for close matches. On the other hand, a verification system consists of an assertion by using a username and a biometric that generates a "˜password' string from the minutiae for an exact single match. Note: for verification, a biometric should not be used as a single-factor solution (see Factor).





























biometric(s)









A physical trait or behavioural characteristic that can be used for the purposes of identification or verification. A good biometric should be unique to an individual, stable over time, quick and easy to present and verify, and not be easily duplicated by artificial means.

The use of measurable biological characteristics, such as fingerprint recognition, voice recognition, retina and iris scans to provide authentication.

A general term used alternatively to describe a characteristic

or a process.

As a characteristic:

A measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristic that can be used for automated recognition.

As a process:

Automated methods of recognizing an individual based on measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristics.












Automated methods of authenticating or verifying an individual based upon a physical or behaviorial characteristic.

Automated recognition of living persons based on observation of behavioural and biological (anatomical and physiological) characteristics.




Automated recognition of living persons based on observation of behavioural and biological (anatomical and physiological) characteristics.







A measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an Applicant. Facial images, fingerprints, and iriscan samples are all examples of biometrics.

A physical or behavioral characteristic of a human being.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

A measurable physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity, of an applicant. Facial images, fingerprints, and iris scan samples are all examples of biometrics.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

Measurable physical characteristics or personal behavioral traits used to identify, or verify the claimed identity, of an individual. Facial images, fingerprints, and handwriting samples are all examples of biometrics.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


bit












A binary digit: 0 or 1


A binary digit: 0 or 1.








A binary digit: 0 or 1














A contraction of the term Binary Digit. The smallest unit of information in a binary system of notation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


bit error rate




































Ratio between the number of bits incorrectly received and the total number of bits transmitted in a telecommunications system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


black




































Designation applied to encrypted information and the information systems, the associated areas, circuits, components, and equipment processing that information. See also RED.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


black core




































A communication network architecture in which user data traversing a global Internet Protocol (IP) network is end-to-end encrypted at the IP layer. Related to striped core.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


blacklist




































A list of email senders who have previously sent span to a user.

SOURCE: SP 800-114

A list of discrete entities, such as hosts or applications, that have been previously determined to be associated with malicious activity.

SOURCE: SP 800-94


blacklisting




































The process of the system invalidating a user ID based on the user's inappropriate actions. A blacklisted user ID cannot be used to log on to the system, even with the correct authenticator. Blacklisting and lifting of a blacklisting are both security-relevant events. Blacklisting also applies to blocks placed against IP addresses to prevent inappropriate or unauthorized use of Internet resources.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


blended attack




































Malicious code that uses multiple methods to spread.

SOURCE: SP 800-61

A hostile action to spread malicious code via multiple methods.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


blinding




































Generating network traffic that is likely to trigger many alerts in a short period of time, to conceal alerts triggered by a "real" attack performed simultaneously.

SOURCE: SP 800-94


block




































Sequence of binary bits that comprise the input, output, State, and Round Key. The length of a sequence is the number of bits it contains. Blocks are also interpreted as arrays of bytes.

SOURCE: FIPS 197


block cipher




































A symmetric key cryptographic algorithm that transforms a block of information at a time using a cryptographic key. For a block cipher algorithm, the length of the input block is the same as the length of the output block.

SOURCE: SP 800-90


block cipher algorithm




































A family of functions and their inverses that is parameterized by a cryptographic key; the function maps bit strings of a fixed length to bit strings of the same length.

SOURCE: SP 800-67


blue team




































1. The group responsible for defending an enterprise's use of information systems by maintaining its security posture against a group of mock attackers (i.e., the Red Team). Typically the Blue Team and its supporters must defend against real or simulated attacks 1) over a significant period of time, 2) in a representative operational context (e.g., as part of an operational exercise), and 3) according to rules established and monitored with the help of a neutral group refereeing the simulation or exercise (i.e., the White Team).

2. The term Blue Team is also used for defining a group of individuals that conduct operational network vulnerability evaluations and provide mitigation techniques to customers who have a need for an independent technical review of their network security posture. The Blue Team identifies security threats and risks in the operating environment, and in cooperation with the customer, analyzes the network environment and its current state of security readiness. Based on the Blue Team findings and expertise, they provide recommendations that integrate into an overall community security solution to increase the customer's cyber security readiness posture. Often times a Blue Team is employed by itself or prior to a Red Team employment to ensure that the customer's networks are as secure as possible before having the Red Team test the systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


boarding process


Includes all the activities involved in converting a Federation member candidate into an official Federation member. It includes an assessment to verify all applicable agreements and rules have been complied with (or waived), acceptance testing to ensure interface specification compliance, change control board (CCB) approval of member system integration, and CCB recommendation of the member candidate's request for a production E-GCA certificate.




































body of evidence (BoE)




































The set of data that documents the information system's adherence to the security controls applied. The BoE will include a Requirements Verification Traceability Matrix (RVTM) delineating where the selected security controls are met and evidence to that fact can be found. The BoE content required by an Authorizing Official will be adjusted according to the impact levels selected.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


boot sector virus




































A virus that plants itself in a system's boot sector and infects the master boot record.

SOURCE: SP 800-61


bootstrap





















See discovery bootstrap.

















boundary




































Physical or logical perimeter of a system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


boundary protection




































Monitoring and control of communications at the external boundary of an information system to prevent and detect malicious and other unauthorized communication, through the use of boundary protection devices (e.g., proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, encrypted tunnels).

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A

Monitoring and control of communications at the external boundary of an information system to prevent and detect malicious and other unauthorized communications, through the use of boundary protection devices (e.g., proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, encrypted tunnels).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


boundary protection device




































A device with appropriate mechanisms that: (i) facilitates the adjudication of different interconnected system security policies (e.g., controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system); and/or (ii) monitors and controls communications at the external boundary of an information system to prevent and detect malicious and other unauthorized communications. Boundary protection devices include such components as proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, and encrypted tunnels.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A

A device with appropriate mechanisms that: (i) facilitates the adjudication of different interconnected system security policies (e.g., controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system); and/or (ii) provides information system boundary protection.

SOURCE: SP 800-53

A device with appropriate mechanisms that facilitates the adjudication of different security policies for interconnected systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


boundary router




































A boundary router is located at the organization's boundary to an external network.

SOURCE: SP 800-41


brand












See EAP Branded Credential.










See IAEG Branded Credential.
















broker group








A broker group is a group of entities which together act as a broker.






























broker or broadcatch infomediary







A broker is a reputation server that has added intelligence for some domain. Generally, a broker is capable of adding value to profile and reputation information by collecting, sorting, indexing, matching or otherwise enhancing connections between data. Note: Brokers are built on top of the OpenPrivacy platform and therefore are generally outside the scope its requirements.

A broker is an entity represented by an unanonymous identity that serves to facilitate two or more anonymous identities in an interaction.






























browsing




































Act of searching through information system storage or active content to locate or acquire information, without necessarily knowing the existence or format of information being sought.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


brute force password attack




































A method of accessing an obstructed device through attempting multiple combinations of numeric and/or alphanumeric passwords.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


buffer overflow




































A condition at an interface under which more input can be placed into a buffer or data holding area than the capacity allocated, overwriting other information. Attackers exploit such a condition to crash a system or to insert specially crafted code that allows them to gain control of the system.

SOURCE: SP 800-28; CNSSI-4009


buffer overflow attack




































A method of overloading a predefined amount of space in a buffer, which can potentially overwrite and corrupt data in memory.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


bulk encryption




































Simultaneous encryption of all channels of a multichannel telecommunications link.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


burden of proof























A legal evidentiary principle of evidence that loosely refers to the obligation that proof of a fact that falls on the party who is the proponent of that fact. There are two separate components. First is the production burden, or the obligation to come forward with some evidence in support of a claim in order to avoid dismissal of that claim. Second is the risk of non-persuasion, the obligation to convince the finder of fact (jury or judge) of the fact, by the applicable standard of proof, e.g., preponderance of the evidence, clear and convincing evidence, or proof beyond a reasonable doubt.















business continuity plan (BCP)




































The documentation of a predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization's business functions will be sustained during and after a significant disruption.

SOURCE: SP 800-34; CNSSI-4009


business impact analysis (BIA)




































An analysis of an information technology (IT) system's requirements, processes, and interdependencies used to characterize system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption.

SOURCE: SP 800-34

An analysis of an enterprise's requirements, processes, and interdependencies used to characterize information system contingency requirements and priorities in the event of a significant disruption.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


business recovery-resumption plan (BRP)




































The documentation of a predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how business processes will be restored after a significant disruption has occurred.

SOURCE: SP 800-34


business rules


Core E-Authentication Federation principles (i.e., interoperability, auditing, and privacy) that RPs and CSPs must comply with.




































business transaction


Business Transaction refers to the functionality of an Agency Application that was the basis of that applications Risk Assessment.




































CA certificate























A certificate issued by one CA to another CA. CA certificates are issued within a PKI and, to facilitate interoperation, where a new CA is included within a PKI via unilateral or cross-certification.

A data record in digital form containing the public digital signature verification key, belonging to a certification authority (CA), that has been signed by the private signing key of another (certifying) CA.















CA domain























A CA domain consists of as CA and its subjects. Sometimes referred to as a PKI domain.















CA system























The collection of the information technology components (including one or more trustworthy systems), along with the procedures and operations of the CA System, as specified in the CPS.















call back




































Procedure for identifying and authenticating a remote information system terminal, whereby the host system disconnects the terminal and reestablishes contact.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


canister




































Type of protective package used to contain and dispense keying material in punched or printed tape form.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


CAP














Credential Assessment Profile.








Credential Assessment Profile.
















capture



































The method of taking a biometric sample from an end user. [INCITS/M1-040211]

The method of taking a biometric sample from an end user.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


cardholder



































An individual possessing an issued PIV Card.

An individual possessing an issued Personal Identity Verification (PIV) card.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


cardspace aka infocard









Microsoft's answer to remembering multiple passwords and other levels of security data. An Identity is represented by an icon representing a (digitally signed) set of claims. These are held in an XML security token called a card (.crd file, encrypted and password-protected). The cards can be "self-issued" ('add a card') which you can link to an existing account, or they can be uneditable third-party "Authority issued". The card doesn't hold any credentials, only pointers to them - think of a business-card. The cards are stored on the user's PC, and tell it how to contact each Identity provider to get an Identity token each time one is needed (usually initiated by a web-browser) and what it will look like (Kerberos, SAML, X.509, etc), using WS-Security protocols to deliver the different token types. You can export one or more cards from the Cardspace client and then import them into another client, email them or put them onto a USB key or mobile device. Also see MS-Passport.





























cascading




































Downward flow of information through a range of security levels greater than the accreditation range of a system, network, or component.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


category




































Restrictive label applied to classified or unclassified information to limit access.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


CBC/MAC




































SEE Cipher Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code.


CCM




































SEE Counter with Cipher-Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code.


central office of record (COR)




































Office of a federal department or agency that keeps records of accountable COMSEC material held by elements subject to its oversight

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


central services note (CSN)




































The Key Management Infrastructure core node that provides central security management and data management services.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certificate


Security accreditation is the official management decision given by a senior Agency official to authorize operation of an information System.







an electronic "˜document' based on the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) X.509 (1988) standard consisting of a public/private key pair; their usage is governed by a Policy and a Practice Statement. They can be used for verification, encryption and digital signing. A digital certificate can also serve as an electronic notary seal (stamp). A certificate contains a digital signature, verified by another certificate - this creates a chain of certificates that ends with the 'root' certificate (which is self-signed); the owner of the root certificate is called the Root CA.


A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or a trusted third party, together with security information which is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data.












1. A Public Key Certificate is a message that at least:

i. identifies the certification authority issuing it,

ii. names or identifies its subscriber,

iii. contains the subscriber's public key,

iv. identifies its operational period, and

v. is digitally signed by the certification authority issuing it.

2. A data record in digital form that at a minimum names the subscriber that is the subject of that certificate, contains the public key of that subscriber that corresponds to the subscriber's private key, names the CA issuing the certificate, is digitally signed by the private key of the issuing CA, contains a serial number unique to that certificate, and specifies the certificate's operational period.

A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or a trusted third party, together with security information which is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data.


A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or a trusted third party, that, together with security information, is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data.

A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or a trusted third party, that, together with security information, is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data.

A set of security-relevant data issued by a security authority or a trusted third party, together with security information which is used to provide the integrity and data origin authentication services for the data.






A certificate is a public key that has been encrypted by a certificate authority (CA). Since the CA's public key is well known, anyone can decrypt the certificate to find the original public key.

Since the CA's business is to verify that a given public key was generated by the user it purportedly comes from, public keys signed by the CA can be trusted to really belong to their stated owner.

Certificates are useful for signature verification (a document is encrypted by the user's private key, and this is verified using the user's certificate) and authentication (a user is asked to encrypt something, and if the user's certificate can decrypt it, then the user must have possessed the matching private key).


A digital representation of information which at least

1) identifies the certification authority issuing it,

2) names or identifies its subscriber,

3) contains the subscriber's public key,

4) identifies its operational period, and

5) is digitally signed by the certification authority issuing it.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

A set of data that uniquely identifies an entity, contains the entity's public key and possibly other information, and is digitally signed by a trusted party, thereby binding the public key to the entity. Additional information in the certificate could specify how the key is used and its cryptoperiod.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

A digitally signed representation of information that 1) identifies the authority issuing it, 2) identifies the subscriber, 3) identifies its valid operational period (date issued / expiration date). In the information assurance (IA) community, certificate usually implies public key certificate and can have the following types:

cross certificate "“ a certificate issued from a CA that signs the public key of another CA not within its trust hierarchy that establishes a trust relationship between the two CAs.

encryption certificate "“ a certificate containing a public key that can encrypt or decrypt electronic messages, files, documents, or data transmissions, or establish or exchange a session key for these same purposes. Key management sometimes refers to the process of storing, protecting, and escrowing the private component of the key pair associated with the encryption certificate.

identity certificate "“ a certificate that provides authentication of the identity claimed. Within the National Security Systems (NSS) PKI, identity certificates may be used only for authentication or may be used for both authentication and digital signatures.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

A set of data that uniquely identifies a key pair and an owner that is authorized to use the key pair. The certificate contains the owner's public key and possibly other information, and is digitally signed by a Certification Authority (i.e., a trusted party), thereby binding the public key to the owner.

SOURCE: FIPS 186


certificate authority (CA)

certification authority









The issuer of a public/private key pair belonging to one identity.














A person who issues a certificate.

An entity responsible for registering and issuing, revoking and generally managing certificates.

An authority trusted by one or more users to create and issue certificates.

An authority trusted by one or more users to create and assign certificates. Optionally, the CA may generate end-user subscribers' keys.











A certificate authority is an organization whose public key is very well known, whose private key is very well protected, and whose business function is to encrypt the public keys belonging to users and systems with its own private key and to publish the resulting encrypted public keys ().




certificate management




































Process whereby certificates (as defined above) are generated, stored, protected, transferred, loaded, used, and destroyed.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certificate management authority























A PKI component that performs back-end functions on behalf of a CA, consisting of processes whereby certificates are generated, stored, protected, transferred, loaded, used and destroyed.













A Certification Authority (CA) or a Registration Authority (RA).

SOURCE: SP 800-32


certificate policy (CP)























A named set of rules that indicates the applicability of a certificate to a particular community and/or class of application with common security requirements.













A Certificate Policy is a specialized form of administrative policy tuned to electronic transactions performed during certificate management. A Certificate Policy addresses all aspects associated with the generation, production, distribution, accounting, compromise recovery, and administration of digital certificates. Indirectly, a certificate policy can also govern the transactions conducted using a communications system protected by a certificate-based security system. By controlling critical certificate extensions, such policies and associated enforcement technology can support provision of the security services required by particular applications.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

A specialized form of administrative policy tuned to electronic transactions performed during certificate management. A Certificate Policy addresses all aspects associated with the generation, production, distribution, accounting, compromise recovery, and administration of digital certificates. Indirectly, a certificate policy can also govern the transactions conducted using a communications system protected by a certificate-based security system. By controlling critical certificate extensions, such policies and associated enforcement technology can support provision of the security services required by particular applications.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certificate-related information




































Information, such as a subscriber's postal address, that is not included in a certificate. May be used by a Certification Authority (CA) managing certificates.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

Data, such as a subscriber's postal address that is not included in a certificate. May be used by a Certification Authority (CA) managing certificates.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certificate revocation list (CRL)









The published list of revoked certificates from the CA.














A list of revoked certificates, which is digitally signed and made available by the CA to relying parties.












A list of revoked public key certificates created and digitally signed by a Certification Authority. [RFC 3280]

A list of revoked public key certificates created and digitally signed by a Certification Authority.

SOURCE: SP 800-63; FIPS 201

A list of revoked but un-expired certificates issued by a CA.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

A list of revoked public key certificates created and digitally signed by a Certification Authority.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certificate status authority




































A trusted entity that provides online verification to a Relying Party of a subject certificate's trustworthiness, and may also provide additional attribute information for the subject certificate.

SOURCE: SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009


certificate verification service (CVS)









The process used to verify a Digital Certificate via the CA.





























certification analyst




































The independent technical liaison for all stakeholders involved in the C&A process responsible for objectively and independently evaluating a system as part of the risk management process. Based on the security requirements documented in the security plan, performs a technical and non-technical review of potential vulnerabilities in the system and determines if the security controls (management, operational, and technical) are correctly implemented and effective.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certification and accreditation (C&A)




































A comprehensive assessment of the management, operational, and technical security controls in an information system, made in support of security accreditation, to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the system. Accreditation is the official management decision given by a senior agency official to authorize operation of an information system and to explicitly accept the risk to agency operations (including mission, functions, image, or reputation), agency assets, or individuals, based on the implementation of an agreed-upon set of security controls.

SOURCE: SP 800-37


certification authority



































A trusted entity that issues and revokes public key certificates.

A trusted entity that issues and revokes public key certificates.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

The entity in a public key infrastructure (PKI) that is responsible for issuing certificates and exacting compliance to a PKI policy.

SOURCE: SP 800-21; FIPS 186

1. For Certification and Accreditation (C&A) (C&A Assessment): Official responsible for performing the comprehensive evaluation of the security features of an information system and determining the degree to which it meets its security requirements

2. For Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): A trusted third party that issues digital certificates and verifies the identity of the holder of the digital certificate.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certification authority certificate























A certificate that lists a certification authority as subscriber and contains a public key corresponding to a private key used by the subject certification authority to digitally sign certificates and certificate status information.















certification authority facility




































The collection of equipment, personnel, procedures and structures that are used by a Certification Authority to perform certificate issuance and revocation.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


certification authority software























The cryptographic software required to manage the keys of End-Entities.















certification authority workstation (CAW)




































Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) workstation with a trusted operating system and special-purpose application software that is used to issue certificates.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certification body












An organization which has been deemed competent to perform assessments of a particular type. Such assessments may be formal evaluations or testing and be based upon some defined set of standards or other criteria.


An organization which has been deemed competent to perform assessments of a particular type. Such assessments may be formal evaluations or testing and be based upon some defined set of standards or other criteria.








An organization which has been deemed competent to perform assessments of a particular type. Such assessments may be formal evaluations or testing and be based upon some defined set of standards or other criteria.
















certification package




































Product of the certification effort documenting the detailed results of the certification activities.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certification path























An ordered sequence of certificates which, together with the public key of the initial object in the path, can be processed to obtain via a chaining of signature key bindings.















certification practice statement (CPS)























A statement of the practices that a certification authority employs in issuing certificates.













A statement of the practices that a Certification Authority employs in issuing, suspending, revoking, and renewing certificates and providing access to them, in accordance with specific requirements (i.e., requirements specified in this Certificate Policy, or requirements specified in a contract for services).

SOURCE: SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009


certification/certify












The EAP's affirmation that a particular credential service provider can provide a particular credential service at a particular assurance level.


The ARB's affirmation that a particular credential service provider can provide a particular credential service at a particular assurance level based on a certification report from an accredited assessor.








The IAEG's affirmation that a particular credential service provider can provide a particular credential service at a particular assurance level.

See Approve.












The process of verifying the correctness of a statement or claim and issuing a certificate as to its correctness.

A comprehensive assessment of the management, operational, and technical security controls in an information system, made in support of security accreditation, to determine the extent to which the controls are implemented correctly, operating as intended, and producing the desired outcome with respect to meeting the security requirements for the system.

SOURCE: FIPS 200

The process of verifying the correctness of a statement or claim and issuing a certificate as to its correctness.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

Comprehensive evaluation of the technical and nontechnical security safeguards of an information system to support the accreditation process that establishes the extent to which a particular design and implementation meets a set of specified security requirements. See security control assessment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certification test and evaluation (CT&E)




































Software and hardware security tests conducted during development of an information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certified service












An electronic trust service which has been assessed by an EAP recognized certification body and found to be compliant with the applicable SACs.


An electronic trust service which has been assessed by a Kantara-accredited assessor and found to be compliant with the applicable SACs.








An electronic trust service which has been assessed by an IAEG-recognized certification body and found to be compliant with the applicable SACs.
















certified TEMPEST technical authority (CTTA)




































An experienced, technically qualified U.S. Government employee who has met established certification requirements in accordance with CNSS-approved criteria and has been appointed by a U.S. Government Department or Agency to fulfill CTTA responsibilities.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


certifier




































Individual responsible for making a technical judgment of the system's compliance with stated requirements, identifying and assessing the risks associated with operating the system, coordinating the certification activities, and consolidating the final certification and accreditation packages.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


chain of custody


A set of procedure(s)/document(s) to account for the Integrity of an object by tracking its handling and storage from point of instantiation through the current or final disposition of the object.


































A process that tracks the movement of evidence through its collection, safeguarding, and analysis lifecycle by documenting each person who handled the evidence, the date/time it was collected or transferred, and the purpose for the transfer.

SOURCE: SP 800-72; CNSSI-4009


chain of evidence




































A process and record that shows who obtained the evidence; where and when the evidence was obtained; who secured the evidence; and who had control or possession of the evidence. The "sequencing" of the chain of evidence follows this order: collection and identification; analysis; storage; preservation; presentation in court; return to owner.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


challenge and reply authentication




































Prearranged procedure in which a subject requests authentication of another and the latter establishes validity with a correct reply.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


challenge/response authentication


































Often used as a backup for passwords, challenge/response authentication is where users are asked to answer a series of personal questions where no-one else is likely to know the answer. While individual personal questions may be poor forms of authentication, correct answers to a whole series of such questions may be sufficiently robust to be used as an authentication factor.




challenge-response protocol




































An authentication protocol where the verifier sends the claimant a challenge (usually a random value or a nonce) that the claimant combines with a shared secret (often by hashing the challenge and secret together) to generate a response that is sent to the verifier. The verifier knows the shared secret and can independently compute the response and compare it with the response generated by the claimant. If the two are the same, the claimant is considered to have successfully authenticated himself. When the shared secret is a cryptographic key, such protocols are generally secure against eavesdroppers. When the shared secret is a password, an eavesdropper does not directly intercept the password itself, but the eavesdropper may be able to find the password with an off-line password guessing attack.

SOURCE: SP 800-63


change request


































A change request consists of one or more proposed changes to user profiles, such as creating new profiles, adding new accounts to existing profiles, changing identity attributes, Requests may be subject to authorization before being implemented.




channel









The instance or form of communication between identities and service providers, each with its own set or security processes and risks. Similar to "context" where the circumstances (where, when, how) of an authentication can influence its assurance level. For example; face-to-face, proxy/representative, legal documents, telephone, mail, on-line network, email, FTP, internet, world wide web, unusual location, unusual time of day.





























characteristic






A characteristic of an entity is an attribute specific to a particular context.
































check word




































Cipher text generated by cryptographic logic to detect failures in cryptography.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


checkin/checkout


































Password disclosure may be limited, in the sense that a password is regularly changed, and only a limited number of users are allowed to have access to the current password value at any given time.

For example, only a single person might be granted administrative privileges (via disclosure of an administrator password) to a given system at once.

A checkin/checkout process is one where a user "checks out" a password, much like a library book, and "checks it back in" when finished. The password may be changed at checkin time.




checksum




































Value computed on data to detect error or manipulation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


chief information officer (CIO)




































Agency official responsible for:

1) Providing advice and other assistance to the head of the executive agency and other senior management personnel of the agency to ensure that information technology is acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that is consistent with laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and priorities established by the head of the agency;

2) Developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information technology architecture for the agency; and

3) Promoting the effective and efficient design and operation of all major information resources management processes for the agency, including improvements to work processes of the agency.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; FIPS 200; Public Law 104-106, Sec. 5125(b)

Agency official responsible for: 1) providing advice and other assistance to the head of the executive agency and other senior management personnel of the agency to ensure that information systems are acquired and information resources are managed in a manner that is consistent with laws, Executive Orders, directives, policies, regulations, and priorities established by the head of the agency; 2) developing, maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and integrated information system architecture for the agency; and 3) promoting the effective and efficient design and operation of all major information resources management processes for the agency, including improvements to work processes of the agency.

Note: Organizations subordinate to federal agencies may use the term Chief Information Officer to denote individuals filling positions with similar security responsibilities to agency-level Chief Information Officers.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


chief information security officer (CISO)




































SEE Senior Agency Information Security Officer.


choice-based










Case in which end users have a clear choice in whether to participate in an IdM federation and over the degree of Authentication reflecting the level of sensitivity of their transaction.




























cipher




































Series of transformations that converts plaintext to ciphertext using the Cipher Key.

SOURCE: FIPS 197

Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols or groups of symbols, represent units of plain text, or in which units of plain text are rearranged, or both.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cipher block chaining-message authentication code (CBC-MAC)




































A secret-key block-cipher algorithm used to encrypt data and to generate a Message Authentication Code (MAC) to provide assurance that the payload and the associated data are authentic.

SOURCE: SP 800-38C


cipher suite




































Negotiated algorithm identifiers. Cipher suites are identified in human-readable form using a pneumonic code.

SOURCE: SP 800-52


cipher text auto-key (CTAK)




































Cryptographic logic that uses previous cipher text to generate a key stream.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


ciphertext




































Data output from the Cipher or input to the Inverse Cipher.

SOURCE: FIPS 197

Data in its enciphered form.

SOURCE: SP 800-56B


ciphertext/cipher text




































Data in its encrypted form.

SOURCE: SP 800-21; SP 800-57; CNSSI-4009


ciphony




































Process of enciphering audio information, resulting in encrypted speech.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


circle of trust (CoT)











i. A set of criteria established for joining organizations within a federation for the purposes of trusted access to each other's resources

ii. Federation of service providers and identity providers that have business relationships based on Liberty architecture, and operational agreements, with whom users can

transact business in a secure and seamless environment.










A federation of service providers and identity providers that have business relationships based on Liberty architecture and operational agreements and with whom users can transact business in a secure and apparently seamless environment. Also known as a Trust Circle.

















CISO




































SEE Senior Agency Information Security Officer.


civil law regime























The legal tradition of jurisdictions that base fundamental legal principles primarily upon statutory codes such as the Code Napoléon.















claim authentication information











Information used by a claimant to generate exchange AI needed to authenticate a principal.



























claim(s)



An assertion made by a Claimant of the value or values of one or more Identity Attributes of a Digital Subject, typically an assertion which is disputed or in doubt.

an assertion made by one subject about itself or another subject that a relying party considers to be "in doubt" until it passes "Claims Approval"




An assertion made by a claimant of the value or values of one or more identity attributes of a digital subject, typically an assertion which is disputed or in doubt.


An assertion made by a Claimant of the value or values of one or more Identity. Attributes of a Digital Subject, typically an assertion which is disputed or in doubt.

An assertion made by a Claimant of the value or values of one or more Identity Attributes of a Digital Subject, typically an assertion which is disputed or in doubt.


An assertion made by a person with respect to one or more identity attributes of a Subject, which assertion typically is disputed or in doubt.




An assertion made by a Claimant of the value or values of one or more Identity Attributes of a Digital Subject, typically an assertion which is disputed or in doubt.







To state as being the case, without being able to give proof.


To state as being the case, without being able to give proof.

To state as being the case, without being able to give proof.

To state as being the case, without being able to give proof.










claimant



A Digital Subject representing a Party that makes a Claim





A digital subject representing a party that makes a claim.



i. An entity which is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication. A claimant includes the functions necessary for engaging in authentication exchanges on behalf of a principal.

ii. A Digital Subject representing a Party that makes a Claim.

A party whose identity is to be verified.


A party whose identity is to be verified.



A Digital Subject representing a Party that makes a Claim.





A party whose identity is to be verified.


An entity which is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication. A claimant includes the functions necessary for engaging in authentication exchanges on behalf of a principal.


An entity that is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication.

An entity that is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication.

An entity which is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication. A claimant includes the functions necessary for engaging in authentication exchanges on behalf of a principal.







A party whose identity is to be verified using an authentication protocol.

A party whose identity is to be verified using an authentication protocol.

SOURCE: SP 800-63; FIPS 201

An entity which is or represents a principal for the purposes of authentication, together with the functions involved in an authentication exchange on behalf of that entity. A claimant acting on behalf of a principal must include the functions necessary for engaging in an authentication exchange. (e.g., a smartcard [claimant] can act on behalf of a human user [principal])

SOURCE: FIPS 196

An entity (user, device or process) whose assertion is to be verified using an authentication protocol.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


claims approval




The process of evaluating a set of claims associated with a security presentation to produce claims trusted in a specific environment so it can used for automated decision making and/or mapped to an application specific identifier.


































claims provider




An individual, organization or service that:

1. registers subjects and associates them with primordial claims, with the goal of subsequently exchanging their primordial claims for a set of substantive claims about the subject that can be presented at a relying party; or

2. interprets one set of substantive claims and produces a second set (this specialization of a claims provider is called a claims transformer). A claims set produced by a claims provider is not a primordial claim.


































claims selector




A software component that gives the user control over the production and release of sets of claims issued by claims providers.


































claims transformer




A claims provider that produces one set of substantive claims from another set.


































classified information




































Information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order (E.O.) 13292 or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form.

SOURCE: SP 800-60; E.O. 13292

See classified national security information.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


classified information spillage




































Security incident that occurs whenever classified data is spilled either onto an unclassified information system or to an information system with a lower level of classification.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


classified national security information




































Information that has been determined pursuant to Executive Order 13526 or any predecessor order to require protection against unauthorized disclosure and is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


clear




































To use software or hardware products to overwrite storage space on the media with nonsensitive data. This process may include overwriting not only the logical storage location of a file(s) (e.g., file allocation table) but also may include all addressable locations. See comments on clear/purge convergence.

SOURCE: 800-88


clear text




































Information that is not encrypted.

SOURCE: SP 800-82


clearance




































Formal certification of authorization to have access to classified information other than that protected in a special access program (including SCI). Clearances are of three types: confidential, secret, and top secret. A top secret clearance permits access to top secret, secret, and confidential material; a secret clearance, to secret and confidential material; and a confidential clearance, to confidential material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


clearing




































Removal of data from an information system, its storage devices, and other peripheral devices with storage capacity, in such a way that the data may not be reconstructed using common system capabilities (i.e., through the keyboard); however, the data may be reconstructed using laboratory methods.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


clickwrap consent























In a legal context, the technique of giving approval or consent to an agreement presented online with opportunity to review it, by a mouseclick on a button stating "I Agree" or words to that effect.















client





















A role assumed by a system entity who makes a request of another system entity, often termed a server [RFC2828]. A client is at varying times a sender or a receiver.















Individual or process acting on behalf of an individual who makes requests of a guard or dedicated server. The client's requests to the guard or dedicated server can involve data transfer to, from, or through the guard or dedicated server.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


client (application)




































A system entity, usually a computer process acting on behalf of a human user, that makes use of a service provided by a server.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


client device








A client device is a networked entity which a user employs to access resources on the network. A client device has at least one identity (e.g. an IP address) separate from it's users' identities. A client device's identities can be anonymous or not. A client device is not a legal entity, but the identities of the client device is sometimes used to represent a legal entity (which is usually a bad idea because the device then cannot be shared). A client device can also act as a server, so long as it has at least one unanonymous identity on-line. Examples of client devices are PC's, laptop computers, wireless PDA's, phones, Blackberries.






























Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996




































Also known as Information Technology Management Reform Act. A statute that substantially revised the way that IT resources are managed and procured, including a requirement that each agency design and implement a process for maximizing the value and assessing and managing the risks of IT investments.

SOURCE: SP 800-64


closed security environment




































Environment providing sufficient assurance that applications and equipment are protected against the introduction of malicious logic during an information system life cycle. Closed security is based upon a system's developers, operators, and maintenance personnel having sufficient clearances, authorization, and configuration control.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


closed storate




































Storage of classified information within an accredited facility, in General Services Administration-approved secure containers, while the facility is unoccupied by authorized personnel.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cloud computing




































A model for enabling on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable IT capabilities/ resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. It allows users to access technology-based services from the network cloud without knowledge of, expertise with, or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics (on-demand self-service, ubiquitous network access, location independent resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service); three service delivery models (Cloud Software as a Service [SaaS], Cloud Platform as a Service [PaaS], and Cloud Infrastructure as a Service [IaaS]); and four models for enterprise access (Private cloud, Community cloud, Public cloud, and Hybrid cloud).

Note: Both the user's data and essential security services may reside in and be managed within the network cloud.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


coarse-grained user provisioning


































Coarse grained user provisioning is a process where new accounts are created for new users, with basic entitlements rather than all of the required entitlements.

This may be easier to automate and faster to deploy, but requires further, manual intervention before a new user can be fully productive.




code




































System of communication in which arbitrary groups of letters, numbers, or symbols represent units of plain text of varying length.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


code book




































Document containing plain text and code equivalents in a systematic arrangement, or a technique of machine encryption using a word substitution technique.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


code group




































Group of letters, numbers, or both in a code system used to represent a plain text word, phrase, or sentence.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


code vocabulary




































Set of plain text words, numerals, phrases, or sentences for which code equivalents are assigned in a code system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cold site




































Backup site that can be up and operational in a relatively short time span, such as a day or two. Provision of services, such as telephone lines and power, is taken care of, and the basic office furniture might be in place, but there is unlikely to be any computer equipment, even though the building might well have a network infrastructure and a room ready to act as a server room. In most cases, cold sites provide the physical location and basic services.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

A backup facility that has the necessary electrical and physical components of a computer facility, but does not have the computer equipment in place. The site is ready to receive the necessary replacement computer equipment in the event that the user has to move from their main computing location to an alternate site.

SOURCE: SP 800-34


cold start




































Procedure for initially keying crypto-equipment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


collision




































Two or more distinct inputs produce the same output.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


command authority




































Individual responsible for the appointment of user representatives for a department, agency, or organization and their key ordering privileges.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


commercial COMSEC evaluation program (CCEP)




































Relationship between NSA and industry in which NSA provides the COMSEC expertise (i.e., standards, algorithms, evaluations, and guidance) and industry provides design, development, and production capabilities to produce a type 1 or type 2 product. Products developed under the CCEP may include modules, subsystems, equipment, systems, and ancillary devices.


commodity service




































An information system service (e.g., telecommunications service) provided by a commercial service provider typically to a large and diverse set of consumers. The organization acquiring and/or receiving the commodity service possesses limited visibility into the management structure and operations of the provider, and while the organization may be able to negotiate service-level agreements, the organization is typically not in a position to require that the provider implement specific security controls.

SOURCE: SP 800-53


common access card (CAC)




































Standard identification/smart card issued by the Department of Defense that has an embedded integrated chip storing public key infrastructure (PKI) certificates.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


common carrier




































In a telecommunications context, a telecommunications company that holds itself out to the public for hire to provide communications transmission services. Note: In the United States, such companies are usually subject to regulation by federal and state regulatory commissions.

SOURCE: SP 800-53


common control




































A security control that is inherited by one or more organizational information systems. See Security Control Inheritance.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


common criteria




































Governing document that provides a comprehensive, rigorous method for specifying security function and assurance requirements for products and systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


common fill device




































One of a family of devices developed to read-in, transfer, or store key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


common law regime























The legal tradition of Anglo-American jurisdictions that accumulates legal principles primarily in reaction to actual cases that are used as precedent in future cases, supplemented by statutes.















common security control




































Security control that can be applied to one or more agency information systems and has the following properties:

1) the development, implementation, and assessment of the control can be assigned to a responsible official or organizational element (other than the information system owner); and

2) the results from the assessment of the control can be used to support the security certification and accreditation processes of an agency information system where that control has been applied.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


common vulnerabilities and exposures (CVE)




































A dictionary of common names for publicly known information system vulnerabilities.

SOURCE: SP 800-51; CNSSI-4009


communication standards


















The procedures and protocols for transmitting requests form Relying Party to Credential Service Provider, as contemplated in Section 2.2 of this Agreement, as described in Schedule C to this Agreement.




















communications cover




































Concealing or altering of characteristic communications patterns to hide information that could be of value to an adversary.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


communications deception




































Deliberate transmission, retransmission, or alteration of communications to mislead an adversary's interpretation of the communications.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


communications profile




































Analytic model of communications associated with an organization or activity. The model is prepared from a systematic examination of communications content and patterns, the functions they reflect, and the communications security measures applied.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


communications security (COMSEC)




































A component of Information Assurance that deals with measures and controls taken to deny unauthorized persons information derived from telecommunications and to ensure the authenticity of such telecommunications. COMSEC includes crypto security, transmission security, emissions security, and physical security of COMSEC material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


community of interest (COI)




































A collaborative group of users who exchange information in pursuit of their shared goals, interests, missions, or business processes, and who therefore must have a shared vocabulary for the information they exchange. The group exchanges information within and between systems to include security domains.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


community risk




































Probability that a particular vulnerability will be exploited within an interacting population and adversely impact some members of that population.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


comparison



































The process of comparing a biometric with a previously stored reference. See also "Identification" and "Identity Verification". [INCITS/M1-040211]

The process of comparing a biometric with a previously stored reference.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


compartmentalization




































A nonhierarchical grouping of sensitive information used to control access to data more finely than with hierarchical security classification alone.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


compartmented mode




































Mode of operation wherein each user with direct or indirect access to a system, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts has all of the following: (1) valid security clearance for the most restricted information processed in the system; (2) formal access approval and signed nondisclosure agreements for that information which a user is to have access; and (3) valid need-to-know for information which a user is to have access.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


compatible


Two Federation Members are considered Compatible if:

1. the CS has an equal or higher Assurance Level than the RP,

2. the CS is willing and able to provide all optional attributes required by the RP,

3. and the Federation Members are currently using the same interface specification version.




































compensating security control




































A management, operational, and/or technical control (i.e., safeguard or countermeasure) employed by an organization in lieu of a recommended security control in the low, moderate, or high baselines that provides equivalent or comparable protection for an information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


compensating security controls




































The management, operational, and technical controls (i.e., safeguards or countermeasures) employed by an organization in lieu of the recommended controls in the low, moderate, or high baselines described in NIST Special Publication 800-53, that provide equivalent or comparable protection for an information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A


competent authority























An agent responsible, within the legal jurisdiction, for:

Issuing licenses, setting minimum CP requirements and giving formal recognition to standards, authorization, regulations or other government or legal recognition to open community CAs as managed by the respective CA Policy Authorities and Operational Authorities.















complexity rules


































Password complexity rules are those parts of a password policy designed to ensure that users choose hard-to-guess passwords. Examples are requirements to use long passwords, to use mixed case or to avoid dictionary words.




component



































An element of a large system, such as an identity card, PIV Issuer, PIV Registrar, card reader, or identity verification support, within the PIV system.



compromise























Disclosure of information to unauthorized persons or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorized intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction, or loss of an object may have occurred.













Disclosure of information to unauthorized persons, or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorized intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction, or loss of an object may have occurred.

SOURCE: SP 800-32

The unauthorized disclosure, modification, substitution, or use of sensitive data (including plaintext cryptographic keys and other CSPs).

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2

Disclosure of information to unauthorized persons, or a violation of the security policy of a system in which unauthorized intentional or unintentional disclosure, modification, destruction, or loss of an object may have occurred.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


compromising emanations




































Unintentional signals that, if intercepted and analyzed, would disclose the information transmitted, received, handled, or otherwise processed by information systems equipment. See TEMPEST.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer abuse




































Intentional or reckless misuse, alteration, disruption, or destruction of information processing resources.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer cryptography




































Use of a crypto-algorithm program by a computer to authenticate or encrypt/decrypt information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer forensics




































The practice of gathering, retaining, and analyzing computer-related data for investigative purposes in a manner that maintains the integrity of the data.

SOURCE: SP 800-61; CNSSI-4009


computer incident response team (CIRT)




































Group of individuals usually consisting of Security Analysts organized to develop, recommend, and coordinate immediate mitigation actions for containment, eradication, and recovery resulting from computer security incidents. Also called a Computer Security Incident Response Team (CSIRT) or a CIRC (Computer Incident Response Center, Computer Incident Response Capability, or Cyber Incident Response Team).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer network attack (CAN)




































Actions taken through the use of computer networks to disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer networks, or the computers and networks themselves.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer network defense (CND)




































Actions taken to defend against unauthorized activity within computer networks. CND includes monitoring, detection, analysis (such as trend and pattern analysis), and response and restoration activities.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer network exploitation (CNE)




































Enabling operations and intelligence collection capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary information systems or networks.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer network operations (CNO)




































Comprised of computer network attack, computer network defense, and related computer network exploitation enabling operations.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer security (COMPUSEC)























Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of IS assets including hardware, software, firmware, and information being processed, stored, and communicated.













Measures and controls that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information system assets including hardware, software, firmware, and information being processed, stored, and communicated.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer security incident




































A violation or imminent threat of violation of computer security policies, acceptable use policies, or standard security practices.

SOURCE: SP 800-61

See Incident.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer security incident response team (CSIRT)




































A capability set up for the purpose of assisting in responding to computer security-related incidents; also called a Computer Incident Response Team (CIRT) or a CIRC (Computer Incident Response Center, Computer Incident Response Capability).

SOURCE: SP 800-61


computer security object (CSO)




































A resource, tool, or mechanism used to maintain a condition of security in a computerized environment. These objects are defined in terms of attributes they possess, operations they perform or are performed on them, and their relationship with other objects.

SOURCE: FIPS 188; CNSSI-4009


computer security objects register




































A collection of Computer Security Object names and definitions kept by a registration authority

SOURCE: FIPS 188; CNSSI-4009


computer security subsystem




































Hardware/software designed to provide computer security features in a larger system environment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


computer virus




































SEE Virus.


computing environment




































Workstation or server (host) and its operating system, peripherals, and applications.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC




































Communications Security.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC account




































Administrative entity, identified by an account number, used to maintain accountability, custody, and control of COMSEC material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC account audit




































Examination of the holdings, records, and procedures of a COMSEC account ensuring all accountable COMSEC material is properly handled and safeguarded.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC aid




































COMSEC material that assists in securing telecommunications and is required in the production, operation, or maintenance of COMSEC systems and their components. COMSEC keying material, callsign/frequency systems, and supporting documentation, such as operating and maintenance manuals, are examples of COMSEC aids.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC assembly




































Group of parts, elements, subassemblies, or circuits that are removable items of COMSEC equipment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC boundary




































Definable perimeter encompassing all hardware, firmware, and software components performing critical COMSEC functions, such as key generation, handling, and storage.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC chip set




































Collection of NSA-approved microchips.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC control program




































Computer instructions or routines controlling or affecting the externally performed functions of key generation, key distribution, message encryption/decryption, or authentication.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC custodian




































Individual designated by proper authority to be responsible for the receipt, transfer, accounting, safeguarding, and destruction of COMSEC material assigned to a COMSEC account.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC demilitarization




































Process of preparing COMSEC equipment for disposal by extracting all CCI, classified, or cryptographic (CRYPTO) marked components for their secure destruction, as well as defacing and disposing of the remaining equipment hulk.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC element




































Removable item of COMSEC equipment, assembly, or subassembly; normally consisting of a single piece or group of replaceable parts.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC end-item




































Equipment or combination of components ready for use in a COMSEC application.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC equipment




































Equipment designed to provide security to telecommunications by converting information to a form unintelligible to an unauthorized interceptor and, subsequently, by reconverting such information to its original form for authorized recipients; also, equipment designed specifically to aid in, or as an essential element of, the conversion process. COMSEC equipment includes crypto-equipment, crypto-ancillary equipment, cryptographic production equipment, and authentication equipment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC facility




































Authorized and approved space used for generating, storing, repairing, or using COMSEC material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC incident




































Occurrence that potentially jeopardizes the security of COMSEC material or the secure electrical transmission of national security information or information governed by 10 U.S.C. Section 2315.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC insecurity




































COMSEC incident that has been investigated, evaluated, and determined to jeopardize the security of COMSEC material or the secure transmission of information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC manager




































Individual who manages the COMSEC resources of an organization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC material




































Item designed to secure or authenticate telecommunications. COMSEC material includes, but is not limited to key, equipment, devices, documents, firmware, or software that embodies or describes cryptographic logic and other items that perform COMSEC functions.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC material control system (CMCS)




































Logistics and accounting system through which COMSEC material marked "CRYPTO" is distributed, controlled, and safeguarded. Included are the COMSEC central offices of record, crypto logistic depots, and COMSEC accounts. COMSEC material other than key may be handled through the CMCS.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC modification




































SEE Information Systems Security Equipment Modification.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC module




































Removable component that performs COMSEC functions in a telecommunications equipment or system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC monitoring




































Act of listening to, copying, or recording transmissions of one's own official telecommunications to analyze the degree of security.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC profile




































Statement of COMSEC measures and materials used to protect a given operation, system, or organization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC survey




































Organized collection of COMSEC and communications information relative to a given operation, system, or organization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC system data




































Information required by a COMSEC equipment or system to enable it to properly handle and control key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


COMSEC training




































Teaching of skills relating to COMSEC accounting, use of COMSEC aids, or installation, use, maintenance, and repair of COMSEC equipment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


consept of operations (CONOP)




































SEE Security Concept of Operations.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


concrete WSDL





















A concrete WSDL document (which includes at least the <wsdl:binding>, <wsdl:service>, and <wsdl:port> elements) that contains the protocol endpoint information necessary for a client to communicate with a particular service instance.

















confidentiality


System and data Confidentiality refers to the protection of information from unauthorized disclosure. The impact of unauthorized disclosure of confidential information can range from the jeopardizing of national security to the disclosure of Privacy Act data. Unauthorized, unanticipated, or unintentional disclosure could result in loss of public confidence, embarrassment, or legal action against the organization.




Confidentiality refers to the state of keeping the content of information secret from all entities but those authorised to have access to it.

















Assurance that information is not disclosed to unauthorized persons, processes, or devices.








The protection of nonpersonal information and data from unauthorized disclosure.





Preserving authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure, including means for protecting personal privacy and proprietary information.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-18; SP 800-27; SP 800-60; FIPS 200; FIPS 199; 44 U.S.C., Sec. 3542

The property that sensitive information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2

The property that information is not disclosed to system entities (users, processes, devices) unless they have been authorized to access the information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

Preserving authorized restrictions on information access and disclosure to prevent disclosure

to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes, including means for protecting personal

privacy and proprietary information.

configuration control




































Process of controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to ensure that the information system is protected against improper modifications prior to, during, and after system implementation.

SOURCE: SP 800-53

Process of controlling modifications to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation to protect the information system against improper modification prior to, during, and after system implementation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


configuration control board (CCB)




































A group of qualified people with responsibility for the process of regulating and approving changes to hardware, firmware, software, and documentation throughout the development and operational life cycle of an information system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


configuration management (CM)


CM is conducted using the two interrelated functions:

"¢ Configuration control

"¢ Baseline management

Configuration control addresses CM policy and procedures, while baseline management is used to record changes over the life cycle.




































confinement channel




































SEE Covert Channel.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


confirm























To ascertain through appropriate inquiry and investigation.















conformance testing



































A process established by NIST within its responsibilities of developing, promulgating, and supporting FIPS for testing specific characteristics of components, products, and services, as well as people and organizations for compliance with a FIPS.



connected members


Connected Members are Federation Members that have directly connected their Systems to allow SAML exchanges. Every Member of the Federation is not connected to every other Federation Member, for example CSs are not connected to other CSs, higher Risk AAs are not connected to lower assurance CSs, etc.




































connector









An agent or interface that enables changes to Identity data to be collected from trusted sources in near real-time and made available (published or subscribed) to identity directories or other systems. For example; details of a new employee published by the HR application to the Identity repository, for the purpose of provisioning. Some interfaces are termed "agent-less" when they don't use a permanent connection between sources; instead they acquire the most up-to-date identity information only when it is required (ie event-based), usually by prior indexing or schema matching of the sources of the data; this is the way a 'virtual directory' work.





























consensus authorization


































Approval by consensus is a form of parallel authorization where not all authorizers must respond before a change request is implemented. For example, any two of three authorizers may be sufficient to approve a request.

Consensus authorization is implemented in order to expedite the approvals process and make sure that it is completed even in cases where some authorizers are unavailable to respond.




consent






























Provision of opt-in or opt-out agreement for a data controller to collect, transfer, use, store, archive, or dispose (of) particular PII, meaning individual, limited agreement.

Agreement by the individual for the entity to collect, use, and disclose personal information in accordance with the privacy notice. Such agreement can be explicit or implied. Explicit consent is given orally, electronically, or in writing, is unequivocal and does not require any inference on the part of the entity seeking consent. Implicit consent may reasonably be inferred from the action or inaction of the individual such as not having opted out, or providing credit card information to complete a transaction. (see opt in and opt out).







consolidated administration


































A consolidated administration system allows a security administrator to create, modify or delete user records on multiple systems at once. It acts as a more efficient replacement for the native user management tools in each of the systems with which it has been integrated.




container




































The file used by a virtual disk encryption technology to encompass and protect other files.

SOURCE: SP 800-111


contamination




































Type of incident involving the introduction of data of one security classification or security category into data of a lower security classification or different security category.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


content filtering




































The process of monitoring communications such as email and Web pages, analyzing them for suspicious content, and preventing the delivery of suspicious content to users.

SOURCE: SP 800-114


context






a context is a sphere of activity, a geographic region, a communication platform, an application, a logical or physical domain.


(1) The surrounding environment and circumstances that determine meaning of digital identities and the policies and protocols that govern their interactions. [Identity Gang: DaveK, PaulT] (2) A context is a sphere of activity, a geographical region, a communication platform, an application, a logical or physical domain. [Source: Stefan Brands.] Practically, a context is only relevant in an interaction. (3) A context might also be referred to as presence.



A property that can be associated with a user attribute value to specify information that can be used to determine the applicability of the value.













The environment with defined boundary conditions in which entities exist and interact.


An environment with defined boundary conditions in which entities exist and interact.

An environment with defined boundary conditions in which entities exist and interact.

The environment with defined boundary conditions in which entities exist and interact.










contingency key




































Key held for use under specific operational conditions or in support of specific contingency plans. See reserve keying material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


contingency plan




































Management policy and procedures designed to maintain or restore business operations, including computer operations, possibly at an alternate location, in the event of emergencies, system failures, or disaster.

SOURCE: SP 800-34

Management policy and procedures used to guide an enterprise response to a perceived loss of mission capability. The Contingency Plan is the first plan used by the enterprise risk managers to determine what happened, why, and what to do. It may point to the Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) or Disaster Recovery Plan for major disruptions.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


continuity of government (COG)




































A coordinated effort within the Federal Government's executive branch to ensure that national essential functions continue to be performed during a catastrophic emergency.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


continuity of operations plan (COOP)




































A predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization's essential functions will be sustained for up to 30 days as a result of a disaster event before returning to normal operations.

SOURCE: SP 800-34

Management policy and procedures used to guide an enterprise response to a major loss of enterprise capability or damage to its facilities. The COOP is the third plan needed by the enterprise risk managers and is used when the enterprise must recover (often at an alternate site) for a specified period of time. Defines the activities of individual departments and agencies and their sub-components to ensure that their essential functions are performed. This includes plans and procedures that delineate essential functions; specifies succession to office and the emergency delegation of authority; provide for the safekeeping of vital records and databases; identify alternate operating facilities; provide for interoperable communications, and validate the capability through tests, training, and exercises. See also Disaster Recovery Plan and Contingency Plan.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


continuity of support plan




































The documentation of a predetermined set of instructions or procedures mandated by Office of Management and Budget (OMB) A-130 that describe how to sustain major applications and general support systems in the event of a significant disruption.

SOURCE: SP 800-34


continuous monitoring




































The process implemented to maintain a current security status for one or more information systems or for the entire suite of information systems on which the operational mission of the enterprise depends. The process includes: 1) he development of a strategy to regularly evaluate selected IA controls/metrics, 2) Recording and evaluating IA relevant events and the effectiveness of the enterprise in dealing with those events, 3) Recording changes to IA controls, or changes that affect IA risks, and 4) Publishing the current security status to enable information-sharing decisions involving the enterprise.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


contract























A promise or set or promises for the breach of which the law gives a remedy, or the performance of which the law recognizes as a duty.















contractor


Person or entity that is under contract to provide the Federal Government with services, supplies, or other needs.




































control information




































Information that is entered into a cryptographic module for the purposes of directing the operation of the module.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


controlled access area




































Physical area (e.g., building, room, etc.) to which only authorized personnel are granted unrestricted access. All other personnel are either escorted by authorized personnel or are under continuous surveillance.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled access protection




































Minimum set of security functionality that enforces access control on individual users and makes them accountable for their actions through login procedures, auditing of security-relevant events, and resource isolation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled area




































Any area or space for which the organization has confidence that the physical and procedural protections provided are sufficient to meet the requirements established for protecting the information and/or information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A


controlled cryptographic item (CCI)




































Secure telecommunications or information system, or associated cryptographic component, that is unclassified and handled through the COMSEC Material Control System (CMCS), an equivalent material control system, or a combination of the two that provides accountability and visibility. Such items are marked "Controlled Cryptographic Item," or, where space is limited, "CCI".

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled cryptographic item (CCI) assembly




































Device embodying a cryptographic logic or other COMSEC design that NSA has approved as a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI). It performs the entire COMSEC function, but depends upon the host equipment to operate.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled cryptographic item (CCI) component




































Part of a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI) that does not perform the entire COMSEC function but depends upon the host equipment, or assembly, to complete and operate the COMSEC function.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled cryptographic item (CCI) equipment




































Telecommunications or information handling equipment that embodies a Controlled Cryptographic Item (CCI) component or CCI assembly and performs the entire COMSEC function without dependence on host equipment to operate.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled interface




































A boundary with a set of mechanisms that enforces the security policies and controls the flow of information between interconnected information systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled space




































Three-dimensional space surrounding information system equipment, within which unauthorized individuals are denied unrestricted access and are either escorted by authorized individuals or are under continuous physical or electronic surveillance.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


controlled unclassified information (CUI)




































A categorical designation that refers to unclassified information that does not meet the standards for National Security Classification under Executive Order 12958, as amended, but is (i) pertinent to the national interests of the United States or to the important interests of entities outside the Federal Government, and (ii) under law or policy requires protection from unauthorized disclosure, special handling safeguards, or prescribed limits on exchange or dissemination. Henceforth, the designation CUI replaces "Sensitive But Unclassified" (SBU).

SOURCE: SP 800-53


controlling authority




































Official responsible for directing the operation of a cryptonet and for managing the operational use and control of keying material assigned to the cryptonet.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cookies































Cookies are pieces of information generated by a Web server and stored in the user's computer, ready for future access. The information can then be used to identify the user when returning to the Web site, to personalize Web content, and suggest items of potential interest based on previous buying habits. Certain advertisers use tracking methods, including cookies, to analyze the patterns and paths through a site.





A piece of state information supplied by a Web server to a browser, in a response for a requested resource, for the browser to store temporarily and return to the server on any subsequent visits or requests.

SOURCE: SP 800-28

Data exchanged between an HTTP server and a browser (a client of the server) to store state information on the client side and retrieve it later for server use.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cooperative key generation




































Electronically exchanging functions of locally generated, random components, from which both terminals of a secure circuit construct traffic encryption key or key encryption key for use on that circuit. See per-call key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cooperative remote rekeying




































Synonymous with manual remote rekeying.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


corporate subscriber (Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations)
































This includes corporate bodies such as a limited company in the UK, a limited liability partnership in England, Wales and N. Ireland or any partnership in Scotland. It also includes schools, government departments and agencies, hospitals and other public bodies eg the Information Commissioner's Office.






correctness proof




































A mathematical proof of consistency between a specification and its implementation.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


correspond























To belong to the same key pair.















corroboration






Corroboration is the confirmation by provision of sufficient evidence and examination thereof that specified requirements have been fulfilled.
































counter with cipher block chaining-message authentication code (CCM)




































A mode of operation for a symmetric key block cipher algorithm. It combines the techniques of the Counter (CTR) mode and the Cipher Block Chaining-Message Authentication Code (CBC-MAC) algorithm to provide assurance of the confidentiality and the authenticity of computer data.

SOURCE: SP 800-38C


countermeasure




































Actions, devices, procedures, or techniques that meet or oppose (i.e., counters) a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


countermeasures




































Actions, devices, procedures, techniques, or other measures that reduce the vulnerability of an information system. Synonymous with security controls and safeguards.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; FIPS 200


covenant























One type of contractual responsibility, being a promise to perform certain tasks (affirmative covenant) or to refrain from certain conduct (negative covenant), to be distinguished from a representation and a warranty.















cover-coding




































A technique to reduce the risks of eavesdropping by obscuring the information that is transmitted.

SOURCE: SP 800-98


covert channel




































An unauthorized communication path that manipulates a communications medium in an unexpected, unconventional, or unforeseen way in order to transmit information without detection by anyone other than the entities operating the covert channel.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


covert channel analysis




































Determination of the extent to which the security policy model and subsequent lower-level program descriptions may allow unauthorized access to information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


covert storage channel




































Covert channel involving the direct or indirect writing to a storage location by one process and the direct or indirect reading of the storage location by another process. Covert storage channels typically involve a finite resource (e.g., sectors on a disk) that is shared by two subjects at different security levels.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


covert testing




































Testing performed using covert methods and without the knowledge of the organization's IT staff, but with the full knowledge and permission of upper management.

SOURCE: SP 800-115


covert timing channel




































Covert channel in which one process signals information to another process by modulating its own use of system resources (e.g., central processing unit time) in such a way that this manipulation affects the real response time observed by the second process.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


credential database


































Most enterprise SSO systems work by storing the various login IDs and passwords for a user in a database of some form and retrieving this information when the time comes to auto-populate a login prompt. This database should be protected, as it contains sensitive information. It may be physically local to the user's workstation, or stored in a directory, or in an enterprise relational database (ERDB). The credential database should definitely be encrypted.




credential management












DEFINITION REQUIRED










A service that supports the lifecycle of identity credentials from issuance to revocation, including renewal, status checks and authentication services.
















credential service (CS)


System that authenticates an End-User who has a PIN or Password based identity Credential. The Credential Service then issues an identity assertion to the relying party. A Credential Service is a Verifier.










A type of electronic trust service that supports the verification of identities (identity proofing), the issuance of identity-related assertions/credentials/tokens, and the subsequent management of those credentials (for example, renewal, revocation and the provision of related status and authentication services).

A reliable, efficient means of disseminating credential information.


A type of electronic trust service that supports the verification of identities (identity proofing), the issuance of identity related assertions/credentials/tokens, and the subsequent management of those credentials (for example, renewal, revocation, and the provision of related status and authentication services).








A type of electronic trust service that supports the verification of identities (identity proofing), the issuance of identity related assertions/credentials/tokens, and the subsequent management of those credentials (for example, renewal, revocation and the provision of related status and authentication services).
















credential service provider (CSP)


An organization that offers one or more Approved Credential Services.










An electronic trust service provider that operates one or more credential services. A CSP can include a Registration Authority.


An electronic trust service provider that operates one or more credential services. A CSP can include a Registration Authority.








An electronic trust service provider that operates one or more credential services. A CSP can include a Registration Authority.














A trusted entity that issues or registers subscriber tokens and issues electronic credentials to subscribers. The CSP may encompass Registration Authorities and verifiers that it operates. A CSP may be an independent third party, or may issue credentials for its own use.

SOURCE: SP 800-63


credential standards


















The policies and procedures used by Credential Service Provider to issue Credentials as described in Schedule E to this Agreement.




















credential(s)


Digital documents used in authentication that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's Token. Note that this document uses "Credential" broadly, referring to both electronic Credentials and Tokens.

The private part of a paired Identity assertion (user-id is usually the public part). The thing(s) that an Entity relies upon in an Assertion at any particular time, usually to authenticate a claimed Identity. Credentials can change over time and may be revoked. Examples include; a signature, a password, a drivers licence number (not the card itself), an ATM card number (not the card itself), data stored on a smart-card (not the card itself), a digital certificate, a biometric template.



A credential is a piece of information attesting to the integrity of certain stated facts.



The private part of a paired Identity assertion (user-id is usually the public part). The thing(s) that an Entity relies upon in an Assertion at any particular time, usually to authenticate a claimed Identity. Credentials can change over time and may be revoked. Examples include; a signature, a password, a drivers licence number (not the card itself), an ATM card number (not the card itself), data stored on a smart-card (not the card itself), a digital certificate, a biometric template.

a. An identifiable object that can be used to authenticate the claimant is what it claims to be and authorize the claimant's access rights.

b. Data that is transferred to establish the claimed identity of any entity.

c. The private part of a paired Identity assertion (user-id is usually the public part). The thing(s) that an entity relies upon in an assertion at any particular

time, usually to authenticate a claimed identity. Credentials can change over time and may be revoked. Examples include; a signature, a password, a drivers

license number (not the card itself), an ATM card number (not the card itself), data stored on a smart-card (not the card itself), a digital certificate, a biometric

template.

i. An identifiable object that can be used to authenticate the claimant is what it claims to be and authorize the claimant's access rights

ii. Data that is transferred to establish the claimed identity of an entity.

iii. The private part of a paired Identity assertion (user-id is usually the public part). The thing(s) that an Entity relies upon in an Assertion at any particular time, usually to authenticate a claimed Identity. Credentials can change over time and may be revoked. Examples include; a signature, a password, a drivers licence number (not the card itself), an ATM card number (not the card itself), data stored on a smart-card (not the card itself), a digital certificate, a bio-metric template.

An object to be verified when presented in an authentication transaction. A credential can be bound in some way to the individual to whom it was issued, or it can be a bearer credential. Electronic credentials are digital documents that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.

A digital document that binds a person's identity (and optionally, additional attributes) to a token possessed and controlled by a person. Data that is used to establish the claimed attributes or identity of a person or an entity. Paper credentials are documents that attest to the identity or other attributes of an individual or entity called the Subject of the credentials. Some common paper credentials include passports, birth certificates, driver's licenses, and employee identity cards.

An object to be verified when presented in an authentication

transaction. A credential can be bound in some way to the

individual to whom it was issued, or it can be a bearer credential. Electronic credentials are digital documents that bind an identity

or an attribute to a subscriber's token.

A secure message stating "Identity Provider X certifies that the holder of the credential satisfies Y," where Y might be "user name is Ê»JohnDoeʼ," or even "the user works for Widgets

Inc."



An electronic token, device or process provided to an individual for the purpose of authenticating their identity in connection with a transaction or series of transactions. The Credential(s) Credential Service Provider will issue to Subjects are more fully described in Schedule D to this Agreement.

Data that is transferred to establish a claimed principal identity. [X.800] [SAMLAgree]

Known data attesting to the truth of certain stated facts.

Data that is transferred or presented to establish either a claimed identity or the authorizations of a system entity.

An object to be verified when presented in an authentication transaction. A credential can be bound in some way to the individual to whom it was issued, or it can be a bearer credential. Electronic credentials are digital documents that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.


A set of data presented as evidence of a claimed identity and/or entitlements.


A set of data presented as evidence of a claimed identity and/or entitlements.

A set of data presented as evidence of a claimed identity and/or entitlements.

A set of data presented as evidence of a claimed identity and/or entitlements.







Evidence attesting to one's right to credit or authority; in this standard, it is the PIV Card and data elements associated with an individual that authoritatively binds an identity (and, optionally, additional attributes) to that individual.

An object that authoritatively binds an identity (and optionally, additional attributes) to a token possessed and controlled by a person.

SOURCE: SP 800-63

Evidence attesting to one's right to credit or authority.

SOURCE: FIPS 201

Evidence or testimonials that support a claim of identity or assertion of an attribute and usually are intended to be used more than once.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

An information object created by a credential provider that provides evidence of the subject's authority, roles, rights, privileges, and other attributes. The credential is normally bound to an acceptable identity medium.

critical infrastructures























Physical and cyber-based systems that are essential to the minimum operations of the economy and government.













System and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the U.S. that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination of those matters. [Critical Infrastructures Protection Act of 2001, 42 U.S.C. 5195c(e)]

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


critical security parameter (CSP)




































Security-related information (e.g., secret and private cryptographic keys, and authentication data such as passwords and Personal Identification Numbers [PINs]) whose disclosure or modification can compromise the security of a cryptographic module.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2; CNSSI-4009


criticality




































A measure of the degree to which an organization depends on the information or information system for the success of a mission or of a business function.

SOURCE: SP 800-60


criticality level




































Refers to the (consequences of) incorrect behavior of a system. The more serious the expected direct and indirect effects of incorrect behavior, the higher the criticality level.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cross-certification/cross certificate























Before a user can verify a digital signature generated by a subscriber of another CA he must obtain the verification public key of the generating CA. To prevent various masquerade attacks this public key must be provided to the user in a manner that will assure its integrity. This is accomplished by having the user's CA and the signer's CA cross-certify whereby each CA provides the other with a verification certificate "“ called a crosscertificate "“ containing the other CA's public verification key. The user is then able to verify the integrity of the cross-certificate generated by its own CA for the other and, with the public key it contains, verify the integrity of the signer's certificate.













A certificate used to establish a trust relationship between two Certification Authorities.

SOURCE: SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009


cross domain capabilities




































The set of functions that enable the transfer of information between security domains in accordance with the policies of the security domains involved.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cross-domain solution (CDS)




































A form of controlled interface that provides the ability to manually and/or automatically access and/or transfer information between different security domains.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptanalysis




































1) Operations performed in defeating cryptographic protection without an initial knowledge of the key employed in providing the protection.

2) The study of mathematical techniques for attempting to defeat cryptographic techniques and information system security. This includes the process of looking for errors or weaknesses in the implementation of an algorithm or of the algorithm itself.

SOURCE: SP 800-57; CNSSI-4009


cryptographic




































Pertaining to, or concerned with, cryptography.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic alarm




































Circuit or device that detects failures or aberrations in the logic or operation of crypto-equipment. Crypto-alarm may inhibit transmission or may provide a visible and/or audible alarm.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic algorithm




































A well-defined computational procedure that takes variable inputs, including a cryptographic key, and produces an output.

SOURCE: SP 800-21; CNSSI-4009


cryptographic ancillary equipment




































Equipment designed specifically to facilitate efficient or reliable operation of cryptographic equipment, without performing cryptographic functions itself.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic binding




































Associating two or more related elements of information using cryptographic techniques.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic boundary




































An explicitly defined continuous perimeter that establishes the physical bounds of a cryptographic module and contains all the hardware, software, and/or firmware components of a cryptographic module.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


cryptographic component




































Hardware or firmware embodiment of the cryptographic logic. A cryptographic component may be a modular assembly, a printed wiring assembly, a microcircuit, or a combination of these items.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic equipment




































Equipment that embodies a cryptographic logic.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic hash function




































A function that maps a bit string of arbitrary length to a fixed length bit string. Approved hash functions satisfy the following properties:

1) (One-way) It is computationally infeasible to find any input which maps to any pre-specified output, and

2) (Collision resistant) It is computationally infeasible to find any two distinct inputs that map to the same output.

SOURCE: SP 800-21


cryptographic ignition key (CIK)




































Device or electronic key used to unlock the secure mode of crypto-equipment.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic initialization




































Function used to set the state of a cryptographic logic prior to key generation, encryption, or other operating mode.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic key (key)



































A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines the specific operation of that algorithm.

A value used to control cryptographic operations, such as decryption, encryption, signature generation, or signature verification.

SOURCE: SP 800-63

A binary string used as a secret parameter by a cryptographic algorithm.

SOURCE: SP 800-108

A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines the specific operation of that algorithm.

SOURCE: FIPS 201; FIPS 198

A parameter used in conjunction with a cryptographic algorithm that determines

w the transformation of plaintext data into ciphertext data,

w the transformation of ciphertext data into plaintext data,

w a digital signature computed from data,

w the verification of a digital signature computed from data,

w an authentication code computed from data, or

w an exchange agreement of a shared secret.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


cryptographic logic




































The embodiment of one (or more) cryptographic algorithm(s) along with alarms, checks, and other processes essential to effective and secure performance of the cryptographic process(es).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic material (slang CRYPTO)




































COMSEC material used to secure or authenticate information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic module




































The set of hardware, software, firmware, or some combination thereof that implements cryptographic logic or processes, including cryptographic algorithms, and is contained within the cryptographic boundary of the module.

SOURCE: SP 800-32; FIPS 196

The set of hardware, software, and/or firmware that implements Approved security functions (including cryptographic algorithms and key generation) and is contained within the cryptographic boundary.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


cryptographic module security policy




































A precise specification of the security rules under which a cryptographic module will operate, including the rules derived from the requirements of this standard (FIPS 140-2) and additional rules imposed by the vendor.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


cryptographic module validation program (CMVP)




































Validates cryptographic modules to Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-2 and other cryptography-based standards. The CMVP is a joint effort between National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Communications Security Establishment (CSE) of the Government of Canada. Products validated as conforming to FIPS 140-2 are accepted by the Federal agencies of both countries for the protection of sensitive information (United States) or Designated Information (Canada). The goal of the CMVP is to promote the use of validated cryptographic modules and provide Federal agencies with a security metric to use in procuring equipment containing validated cryptographic modules.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


cryptographic net




































Stations holding a common key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic period




































Time span during which each key setting remains in effect.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic product




































A cryptographic key (public, private, or shared) or public key certificate, used for encryption, decryption, digital signature, or signature verification; and other items, such as compromised key lists (CKL) and certificate revocation lists (CRL), obtained by trusted means from the same source which validate the authenticity of keys or certificates. Protected software which generates or regenerates keys or certificates may also be considered a cryptographic product.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic randomization




































Function that randomly determines the transmit state of a cryptographic logic.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic security




































Component of COMSEC resulting from the provision of technically sound cryptographic systems and their proper use.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic strength




































A measure of the expected number of operations required to defeat a cryptographic mechanism.

SOURCE: SP 800-63


cryptographic synchornization




































Process by which a receiving decrypting cryptographic logic attains the same internal state as the transmitting encrypting logic.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic system




































Associated information assurance items interacting to provide a single means of encryption or decryption.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic system analysis




































Process of establishing the exploitability of a cryptographic system, normally by reviewing transmitted traffic protected or secured by the system under study.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic system evaluation




































Process of determining vulnerabilities of a cryptographic system and recommending countermeasures.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic system review




































Examination of a cryptographic system by the controlling authority ensuring its adequacy of design and content, continued need, and proper distribution.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic system survey




































Management technique in which actual holders of a cryptographic system express opinions on the system's suitability and provide usage information for technical evaluations.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptographic token












A token for which the secret is a cryptographic key.


A token for which the secret is a cryptographic key.








A token for which the secret is a cryptographic key.














A token where the secret is a cryptographic key.

SOURCE: SP 800-63

A portable, user-controlled physical device (e.g., smart card or PCMCIA card) used to store cryptographic information and possibly also perform cryptographic functions.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptography


The discipline which embodies principles, means and methods for the transformation of data to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification, prevent its unauthorized use or a combination thereof. [ANSI X9.31] Cryptography deals with the transformation of ordinary text (plaintext) into coded form (ciphertext) by encryption and transformation of ciphertext into plaintext by decryption. [NIST SP 800-2]







The mathematical methods of protecting and keeping private of shared secrets, usually in a message. Literally means "hidden writing" (greek). For example; ROT13 (a rotation cipher) and Code (word replacement). Modern techniques include algorythms, hashes and keys. Qantum cryptography allows only a single recipient, as the act of reading alters the contents and so allows detection of a passive eavesdropper - most systems use single photons from a laser. Fibre lasers can provide secure transmissions over long distances. Not to be confused with steganography (the act of hiding the existence of a message, such as in pictures or sounds).



























The discipline that embodies the principles, means, and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide their semantic content, prevent their unauthorized use, or prevent their undetected modification.

SOURCE: SP 800-59; ANSDIT

The discipline that embodies principles, means, and methods for providing information security, including confidentiality, data integrity, non-repudiation, and authenticity.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

Is categorized as either secret key or public key. Secret key cryptography is based on the use of a single cryptographic key shared between two parties. The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt data. This key is kept secret by the two parties. Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography which makes use of two keys: a public key and a private key. The two keys are related but have the property that, given the public key, it is computationally infeasible to derive the private key [FIPS 140-1]. In a public key cryptosystem, each party has its own public/private key pair. The public key can be known by anyone; the private key is kept secret.

SOURCE: FIPS 191

Art or science concerning the principles, means, and methods for rendering plain information unintelligible and for restoring encrypted information to intelligible form.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cryptology




































The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications. It includes communications security and communications intelligence.

SOURCE: SP 800-60

The mathematical science that deals with cryptanalysis and cryptography.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


crypto officer




































An operator or process (subject), acting on behalf of the operator, performing cryptographic initialization or management functions.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


CVE




































SEE Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures.


cyber attack




































An attack, via cyberspace, targeting an enterprise's use of cyberspace for the purpose of disrupting, disabling, destroying, or maliciously controlling a computing environment/infrastructure; or destroying the integrity of the data or stealing controlled information.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cyber incident




































Actions taken through the use of computer networks that result in an actual or potentially adverse effect on an information system and/or the information residing therein. See incident.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


cybersecurity




































The ability to protect or defend the use of cyberspace from cyber attacks.

The collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance, and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user's assets.

(Organization and user's assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment.)

SOURCE: ITU-T X.1205, "Overview of Cybersecurity"

Measures taken to protect computers, computer systems and networks, and data against

unauthorized access or attack.

cyberspace




































A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information systems infrastructures including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009

The interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, mobile devices, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries. Common usage of the term also refers to the virtual environment of information and interactions between people.

cyclical redundancy check




































A method to ensure data has not been altered after being sent through a communication channel.

SOURCE: SP 800-72

Error checking mechanism that verifies data integrity by computing a polynomial algorithm based checksum.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


DAA




































SEE Designated Approving/Approval/Accrediting Authority.


data











A relationship that someone claims to exist between two entities.









Any information that a Principal provides to an Identity Provider or a service provider.
















A subset of information in an electronic format that allows it to be retrieved or transmitted.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data aggregation




































Compilation of individual data systems and data that could result in the totality of the information being classified, or classified at a higher level, or of beneficial use to an adversary.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data asset




































1. Any entity that is comprised of data. For example, a database is a data asset that is comprised of data records. A data asset may be a system or application output file, database, document, or Web page. A data asset also includes a service that may be provided to access data from an application. For example, a service that returns individual records from a database would be a data asset. Similarly, a Web site that returns data in response to specific queries (e.g., www.weather.com) would be a data asset.

2. An information-based resource.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data authentication






Data authentication is the corroboration that the origin and integrity of data is as claimed.
































data controller (Data Protection Act)






























An entity linking the object information recorded in the RFID tag to PII, or recording PII in the RFID tag or collecting PII recorded in the RFID tag.


A person who determines the purposes for which, and the manner in which, personal information is to be processed. This may be an individual or an organisation and the processing may be carried out jointly or in common with other persons.






data element




































A basic unit of information that has a unique meaning and subcategories (data items) of distinct value. Examples of data elements include gender, race, and geographic location.

SOURCE: SP 800-47; CNSSI-4009


data encryption algorithm (DEA)




































The cryptographic engine that is used by the Triple Data Encryption Algorithm (TDEA).

SOURCE: SP 800-67


data encryption standard (DES)




































Cryptographic algorithm designed for the protection of unclassified data and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 46. (FIPS 46-3 withdrawn 19 May 2005) See Triple DES.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data flow control




































Synonymous with information flow control.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data integrity


The property that data has not been altered by an unauthorized entity.





















Condition existing when data is unchanged from its source and has not been accidentally or maliciously modified, altered, or destroyed.













The property that data has not been altered in an unauthorized manner. Data integrity covers data in storage, during processing, and while in transit.

SOURCE: SP 800-27

The property that data has not been changed, destroyed, or lost in an unauthorized or accidental manner.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data origin authentication











Corroboration that the source of data received is as claimed.

























The process of verifying that the source of the data is as claimed and that the data has not been modified.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data owner


































A data owner is a business role associated with responsibility for a given set of data. Normally this comes with responsibility to decide what users in the organization may access the data in question and for the quality of the data.




data processor (Data Protection Act)
































A person, who processes personal information on a data controller's behalf. Anyone responsible for the disposal of confidential waste is also included under this definition.






data quality









A measure of the timely correctness of information. New IAM solutions usually highlight that existing data and processes are inadequate, even though they remain suitable for existing business needs as reflected in the source application's objectives. Also see Trusted Source.





























data security























Protection of data from unauthorized (accidental or intentional) modification, destruction, or disclosure.













Protection of data from unauthorized (accidental or intentional) modification, destruction, or disclosure.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


data subject (Data Protection Act)






























An entity who can be identified by one or more pieces of data related to his or her physical, physiological, mental, financial, cultural, or social attributes.


This is the living individual who is the subject of the personal information (data).






data transfer device (DTD)




































Fill device designed to securely store, transport, and transfer electronically both COMSEC and TRANSEC key, designed to be backward compatible with the previous generation of COMSEC common fill devices, and programmable to support modern mission systems.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


deactivation

























Any process that stops interactions of an RFID Tag with its environment which does not require the active involvement of the consumer.













decertification




































Revocation of the certification of an information system item or equipment for cause.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


decipher




































Convert enciphered text to plain text by means of a cryptographic system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


decode




































Convert encoded text to plain text by means of a code.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


decrypt




































Generic term encompassing decode and decipher.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


decryption









The process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.



























The process of transforming ciphertext into plaintext.

SOURCE: SP 800-67

The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext using a cryptographic algorithm and key.

SOURCE: SP 800-21

Conversion of ciphertext to plaintext through the use

of a cryptographic algorithm.

SOURCE: FIPS 185


dedicated mode




































Information systems security mode of operation wherein each user, with direct or indirect access to the system, its peripherals, remote terminals, or remote hosts, has all of the following: 1. valid security clearance for all information within the system, 2. formal access approval and signed nondisclosure agreements for all the information stored and/or processed (including all compartments, subcompartments, and/or special access programs), and 3. valid need-to-know for all information contained within the information system. When in the dedicated security mode, a system is specifically and exclusively dedicated to and controlled for the processing of one particular type or classification of information, either for full-time operation or for a specified period of time.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


default classification




































Classification reflecting the highest classification being processed in an information system. Default classification is included in the caution statement affixed to an object.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


defederate, defederate identity





















To eliminate linkage between a Principal's accounts at an identity provider and a service provider.

















defence in depth (DID)









This is a concept that refers to implementing layers of technical, organizational, and operational security controls, requiring breaches to penetrate several layers in sequence beginning at the border or perimeter of the network. Can be used in conjunction with an Assurance Framework's credential strength.





























defense-in-breadth




































A planned, systematic set of multidisciplinary activities that seek to identify, manage, and reduce risk of exploitable vulnerabilities at every stage of the system, network, or sub-component life cycle (system, network, or product design and development; manufacturing; packaging; assembly; system integration; distribution; operations; maintenance; and retirement).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


defense-in-depth




































Information security strategy integrating people, technology, and operations capabilities to establish variable barriers across multiple layers and dimensions of the organization.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009; SP 800-53


degauss




































Procedure that reduces the magnetic flux to virtual zero by applying a reverse magnetizing field. Also called demagnetizing.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


delegated administration









To act on behalf of the administrator of an Identity repository. This is usually achieved by partitioning and filtering the directory and providing simple tools such as web-based functions to add/modify/delete a subset of accounts. It is particularly useful for trusted organisations working as agents on behalf of the owner of the repository, to manage its own staffs access.

























A delegated administration system allows a some users to manage the accounts of other users on some systems. Delegated administration is intended to move user management out of a central IT function, decentralizing it so that it is performed by IT or business users who are more closely familiar with the users whose profiles are being managed.

Delegated user administration may be thought of as consolidated user administration plus filters that limit what one user can see of and do to another.




delegated authorizer


































A given authorizer may not always be available. For example, authorizers may take holidays, be ill, be too busy to respond, etc. In these cases, an authorizer may wish to delegate his authority to another user -- temporarily or permanent. The new authorizer is a delegated one.




delegated development program




































INFOSEC program in which the Director, NSA, delegates, on a case-by-case basis, the development and/or production of an entire telecommunications product, including the INFOSEC portion, to a lead department or agency.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


delegation






Delegation is the process in which an identified entity issues a mandate to another identified entity.





i. Conveyance of privilege from one entity that holds such privilege, to another entity.

ii. The action that assigns authority, responsibility or a function to another object.

iii. An act of transferring of privileges to perform some

action on behalf of one entity to another.










Enabling a system entity to operate on behalf of a principal to access an identity service.



The action that assigns authority, responsibility or a function to another entity.


An action that assigns authority, responsibility, or a function to another entity.

An action that assigns authority, responsibility, or a function to another entity.

The action that assigns authority, responsibility or a function to another entity.










delegation of approval authority


































Authorizers may wish to schedule periods of time during which they will be unavailable (example: vacations), and during which their authority to approve change requests should be transferred to others. The process by which an authorizer transfers authority -- temporarily or permanently -- is delegation.




deleted file




































A file that has been logically, but not necessarily physically, erased from the operating system, perhaps to eliminate potentially incriminating evidence. Deleting files does not always necessarily eliminate the possibility of recovering all or part of the original data.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


demilitarized zone (DMZ)




































A network created by connecting two firewalls. Systems that are externally accessible but need some protections are usually located on DMZ networks.

SOURCE: SP 800-41

A host or network segment inserted as a "neutral zone" between an organization's private network and the Internet.

SOURCE: SP 800-45

Perimeter network segment that is logically between internal and external networks. Its purpose is to enforce the internal network's Information Assurance policy for external information exchange and to provide external, untrusted sources with restricted access to releasable information while shielding the internal networks from outside attacks.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


denial of service (DoS)




































An attack that prevents or impairs the authorized use of networks, systems, or applications by exhausting resources.

SOURCE: SP 800-61

The prevention of authorized access to resources or the delaying of time-critical operations. (Time-critical may be milliseconds or it may be hours, depending upon the service provided.)

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


descriptive top-level specification (DTLS)




































A natural language descriptive of a system's security requirements, an informal design notation, or a combination of the two.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


designated approval authority (DAA)




































Official with the authority to formally assume responsibility for operating a system at an acceptable level of risk. This term is synonymous with authorizing official, designated accrediting authority, and delegated accrediting authority.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


designated approving (accrediting) authority (DAA)




































The individual selected by an authorizing official to act on their behalf in coordinating and carrying out the necessary activities required during the security certification and accreditation of an information system. (Synonymous with Authorizing Official.)

SOURCE: SP 800-37


designated financial agent


Selected by a RP or CSP to provide financial related services in regard to the E-Authentication Federation.




































device





































A physical construct, generally electronic, that is capable of storing and processing information, e.g., a Personal Computer, web server, mobile phone, or smart card.

device distribution profile




































An approval-based Access Control List (ACL) for a specific product that 1) names the user devices in a specific key management infrastructure (KMI) Operating Account (KOA) to which PRSNs distribute the product, and 2) states conditions of distribution for each device.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


device ID









The unique serial number or "˜fingerprint' that a particular device has embedded in it. Thus a particular PC or PDA can be "something you have" in a two-factor solution. It can be the combination of several components (eg CPU + graphics card) and can include a threshold (ie less than 100% matching) to allow for partial upgrades, such as with the iPass (proprietary) solution. It may be a temporary identification for a session for ensuring compatible device usage, or it may be a permanent registration of the ID for inclusion as a trusted credential in an Assurance Framework and in a subsequent authentication process.





























device registration manager




































The management role that is responsible for performing activities related to registering users that are devices.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


dial-back


































Dial back validates a user's physical location using the telephone system. In its original form, when users connected their PCs to the network with telephone modems, a user would connect to a corporate network, identify himself, hang-up and wait for a corporate server to call him back at home.

With more modern technology, a user may sign into a corporate network, identify himself and wait for a single-use random PIN to be phoned or text messaged to his home or cellular telephone. This PIN is subsequently used to authenticate to a network service.


Synonymous with call back.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


differential power analysis (DPA)




































An analysis of the variations of the electrical power consumption of a cryptographic module, using advanced statistical methods and/or other techniques, for the purpose of extracting information correlated to cryptographic keys used in a cryptographic algorithm.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


digital certificate









an electronic "˜document' based on the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) X.509 (1988) standard consisting of a public/private key pair; their usage is governed by a Policy and a Practice Statement. They can be used for verification, encryption and digital signing. A digital certificate can also serve as an electronic notary seal (stamp). A certificate contains a digital signature, verified by another certificate - this creates a chain of certificates that ends with the 'root' certificate (which is self-signed); the owner of the root certificate is called the Root CA.





























digital contract











A contract made in digital form and signed by two entities between whom an agreement is reached.



























digital evidence




































Electronic information stored or transferred in digital form.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


digital forensics




































The application of science to the identification, collection, examination, and analysis of data while preserving the integrity of the information and maintaining a strict chain of custody for the data.

SOURCE: SP 800-86


digital identity/subject/provider/etc.



A digital representation of a set of Claims made by one Party about itself or another Digital Subject. An Agent that issues a Digital Identity. An Entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.

The consumer of a digital service (a digital representation of a natural or juristic person, persona, group, organization, software service or device) described through claims.

1. the digital representation of a set of claims made by one digital subject about itself or another digital subject.

2. A digital subject is an entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with. Every digital subject has a finite, but unlimited number of identity attributes

A digital identity is a partial identity in an electronic form.


Same as identity. An entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.


a. The digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group, or organization.

b. A digital representation of a set of claims made by one party about itself or another digital subject.

c. A set of claims made by one digital subject about itself or another digital subject.

i. The digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group or organization

ii. A digital representation of a set of Claims made by one Party about itself or another Digital Subject.

iii. A set of claims made by one digital subject about itself or another digital subject.

An Entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.

An Agent that issues a Digital Identity.


The person that is identified in a particular credential and that can be authenticated and vouched for by an Identity Provider.

An entity that is able to use an electronic trust service subject to agreement with an associated subscriber. A subject and a subscriber can be the same entity.



A digital representation of a set of Claims made by one Party about itself or another Digital Subject.

An Entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.

An individual to whom Credential Service Provider issues a Credential.




An entity that is able to use an electronic trust service subject to agreement with an associated subscriber. A subject and a subscriber can be the same entity.


The digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group or organization


A digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group or organization.

A digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group or organization

The digital representation of the information known about a specific individual, group or organization.









The electronic representation of an entity (e.g., a device, software, service, organization or individual) in cyberspace that is comprised of an information artifact or correlated information

sets.

digital object architecture (DOA)





Digital Object Architecture (DOA) [2] provides a means of managing digital information in a network environment. A digital object has a machine and platform independent structure that allows it to be identified, accessed and protected, as appropriate. A digital object may incorporate not only informational elements, i.e., a digitized version of a paper, movie or sound recording, but also the unique identifier of the digital object and other metadata about the digital object. The metadata may include restrictions on access to digital objects, notices of ownership, and identifiers for licensing agreements, if appropriate.

































digital signature









An electronic signature that can be used to authenticate the identity of the sender of an electronic message or the signer of a digital document, and to ensure that the original content of the message or document that has been sent is unchanged. Not to be confused with a digital certificate.














A transformation of a message using an asymmetric crypto-system and a hash function such that a person having the initial message and the signer's public key can accurately determine (1) whether the transformation was created using the private key that corresponds to the signer's public key, and (2) whether the initial message has been altered since the transformation was made.

"A cryptographic process used to assure message originator authenticity, integrity, and nonrepudiation."













An asymmetric key operation where the private key is used to digitally sign an electronic document and the public key is used to verify the signature. Digital signatures provide authentication and integrity protection.

SOURCE: SP 800-63

A nonforgeable transformation of data that allows the proof of the source (with non-repudiation) and the verification of the integrity of that data.

SOURCE: FIPS 196

The result of a cryptographic transformation of data which, when properly implemented, provides the services of:

1. origin authentication,

2. data integrity, and

3. signer non-repudiation.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2

The result of a cryptographic transformation of data that, when properly implemented, provides a mechanism for verifying origin authentication, data integrity, and signatory non-repudiation.

SOURCE: FIPS 186

The result of a cryptographic transformation of data that, when properly implemented, provides origin authentication, data integrity, and signatory non-repudiation.

SOURCE: SP 800-89

Cryptographic process used to assure data object originator authenticity, data integrity, and time stamping for prevention of replay.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


digital signature algorithm




































Asymmetric algorithms used for digitally signing data.

SOURCE: SP 800-49


digital signature key pair























A pair of asymmetric keys composed of a private signing key and a corresponding public digital signature verification key.















digital subject











An Entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.






An Entity represented or existing in the digital realm which is being described or dealt with.





















directed identity











A unifying identity system must support both "omnidirectional" identifiers for public entities and "unidirectional" identifiers for private entities.



























direct shipment




































Shipment of COMSEC material directly from NSA to user COMSEC accounts.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


directory









(1) a hierarchical repository used for authentication and/or identity management. Usually based on the X.500 standard and LDAP protocol. A directory may be replicated, partitioned and/or filtered. A "˜virtual' directory may conjoin data from disparate data stores by containing only pointers to the data, rather than the data itself.

(2) a list of Identities used for inquiring or searching, usually the by-product of identity management. For example; a staff telephone list or White Pages phone directory.














A directory system that conforms to the ITU-T X.500 series of Recommendations.











A directory is a network service which lists participants in the network -- users, computers, printers, groups, etc. It is intended to be a convenient and robust mechanism for publishing and consuming information about these participants.




directory hierarchy


































A directory can be organized into a hierarchy, in order to make it easier to browse or manage. Directory hierarchies normally represent something in the physical world, such as organizational hierarchies or physical locations. For example, the top level of a directory may represent a company, the next level down divisions, the next level down departments, etc. Alternately, the top level may represent the world, the next level down countries, next states or provinces, next cities, etc.




directory object


































A directory object is an item in a directory. Example objects include users, user groups, computers and more. Objects may be organized into a hierarchy and contain identifying attributes.




disabled account


































A disabled account is one where the administrator lockout flag has been set.




disaster recovery plan (DRP)




































A written plan for processing critical applications in the event of a major hardware or software failure or destruction of facilities.

SOURCE: SP 800-34

Management policy and procedures used to guide an enterprise response to a major loss of enterprise capability or damage to its facilities. The DRP is the second plan needed by the enterprise risk managers and is used when the enterprise must recover (at its original facilities) from a loss of capability over a period of hours or days. See Continuity of Operations Plan and Contingency Plan.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


disconnection




































The termination of an interconnection between two or more IT systems. A disconnection may be planned (e.g., due to changed business needs) or unplanned (i.e., due to an attack or other contingency).

SOURCE: SP 800-47


discoverable





















A discoverable "in principle" service is one having an service type URI assigned (this is typically in done in the specification defining the service). A discoverable "in practice" service is one that is registered in some discovery service instance.

ID-WSF services are, by definition, discoverable in principle because such services are assigned a service type URI facilitating their registration in Discovery Service instances. Once so registered, they are discoverable in practice.

















discovery











i. The act of locating a machine-processable description of a network-related resource that may have been previously unknown and that meets certain functional

criteria. It involves matching a set of functional and other criteria with a set of resource descriptions. The goal is to find an appropriate Web service-related resource.

ii. The process by which IdM resources can be found or located.



























discovery bootstrap





















A SAML (see [SAMLCore2]) <Attribute> element defined such that an Endpoint Reference (EPR) for the discovery service itself"”an ID-WSF EPR"”can be conveyed via SAML assertions. Upon authentication or SSO, such a "discovery bootstrap" is conveyed to the authenticating (aka relying) party as a part of the Principal's security token. The relying party is thus able to query the Principal's discovery service for references to the Principal's other identity services.

















discovery service (DS)




















An entity that has the ability to direct attribute requesters to the relevant attribute provider who provides the requested classes of attributes for the specified Principal.

An ID-WSF service facilitating the registration, and subsequent discovery of, ID-WSF service instances [LibertyDisco], as indexed by Principal identity. See also discoverable.

















discovery service provider (DS provider)





















A Web Service Provider (WSP) implementing the server-side of the ID-WSF Discovery Service [LibertyDisco].

















discretionary access control




































The basis of this kind of security is that an individual user, or program operating on the user's behalf, is allowed to specify explicitly the types of access other users (or programs executing on their behalf) may have to information under the user's control.

SOURCE: FIPS 191

A means of restricting access to objects (e.g., files, data entities) based on the identity and need-to-know of subjects (e.g., users, processes) and/or groups to which the object belongs. The controls are discretionary in the sense that a subject with a certain access permission is capable of passing that permission (perhaps indirectly) on to any other subject (unless restrained by mandatory access control).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


disk imaging




































Generating a bit-for-bit copy of the original media, including free space and slack space.

SOURCE: SP 800-86


disruption




































An unplanned event that causes the general system or major application to be inoperable for an unacceptable length of time (e.g., minor or extended power outage, extended unavailable network, or equipment or facility damage or destruction).

SOURCE: SP 800-34; CNSSI-4009


distinguished name (DN)























An unambiguous name given to an entry within a directory conforming to the ITU-T X.500 series of Recommendations. The distinguished name of a given object is defined as that name which consists of the sequence of the RDNs of the entry which represents the object and those of all of its superior entries (in descending order). Because of the one-to-one correspondence between objects and object entries, the distinguished name of an object is the distinguished name of the object entry.













A unique name or character string that unambiguously identifies an entity according to the hierarchical naming conventions of X.500 directory service.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


distinguishing identifier




































Information which unambiguously distinguishes an entity in the authentication process.

SOURCE: FIPS 196; CNSSI-4009


distributed denial of service (DDoS)




































A Denial of Service technique that uses numerous hosts to perform the attack.

SOURCE: SP 800-61; CNSSI-4009


DMZ




































SEE Demilitarized Zone.


domain




































A set of subjects, their information objects, and a common security policy.

SOURCE: SP 800-27

An environment or context that includes a set of system resources and a set of system entities that have the right to access the resources as defined by a common security policy, security model, or security architecture. See also security domain.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009; SP 800-53


drop accountability




































Procedure under which a COMSEC account custodian initially receipts for COMSEC material, and provides no further accounting for it to its central office of record. Local accountability of the COMSEC material may continue to be required. See accounting legend code.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


dual-use certificate




































A certificate that is intended for use with both digital signature and data encryption services.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


due care




































The responsibility that managers and their organizations have a duty to provide for information security to ensure that the type of control, the cost of control, and the deployment of control are appropriate for the system being managed.

SOURCE: SP 800-30


duplicate digital evidence




































A duplicate is an accurate digital reproduction of all data objects contained on the original physical item and associated media.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


duration




































A field within a certificate that is composed of two subfields; "date of issue" and "date of next issue."

SOURCE: SP 800-32


duress indicator









A method of indicating that a particular authentication is being done under threat or coercion. For example; a particular password, a special finger(print) or a spoken phrase that is never used for authentication unless being forced to do so.





























dynamic SoD policy


































A dynamic segregation of duties policy is one that prevents one login account or user profile from performing two or more conflicting actions relating to the same business transaction. For example, while it may be appropriate for the same user to have both the vendor-management and payment-management entitlements, it is not acceptable for the same user to both create a vendor and authorize a payment to that vendor.




EAP assessor












An organization that has agreed to the EAP Rules and that has been accredited to conduct assessments of credential service providers.


























EAP credential service provider












Organization that has agreed to the EAP Operating Rules and other applicable Rules, and that has been Certified to issue, process, validate, etc., an EAP Branded Credential.


























EAP-branded credential












Information indicating the individual identity of a natural person, according to a CSP certified by the EAP to issue, process, validate or otherwise purvey such credential.


























EAP-recognized assessor












A body that has been granted an accreditation to perform assessments against Service Assessment Criteria, at the specified assurance level(s).


























EAP-recognized certification body












A certification body which has been accredited by, or whose qualifications have been otherwise established by, a scheme which the EAP Board has deemed to be appropriate for the purposes of determining an ETSP's competence to perform assessments against EAP's criteria.


























easter egg




































Hidden functionality within an application program, which becomes activated when an undocumented, and often convoluted, set of commands and keystrokes are entered. Easter eggs are typically used to display the credits for the development team and are intended to be nonthreatening.

SOURCE: SP 800-28


e-authentication federation (federation)


An identity federation, whereby Government agencies can rely on Credentials issued and managed by other organizations "“ within and outside the Federal Government. The Federation is driven by supply and demand. The demand is for online services, which will be fulfilled by leveraging an existing supply of trusted Credentials that are already available and in use by the American public. The Federation includes policy and standards, Business Rules, an architectural framework, Credential Services, Agency Applications, service delivery and acquisition, and a financial model.




































education (information security)




































Education integrates all of the security skills and competencies of the various functional specialties into a common body of knowledge . . . and strives to produce IT security specialists and professionals capable of vision and proactive response.

SOURCE: SP 800-50


egress filtering




































Filtering of outgoing network traffic.

SOURCE: SP 800-41

The process of blocking outgoing packets that use obviously false Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, such as source addresses from internal networks.

SOURCE: 800-61


e-governance certificate authority (E-GCA)


Established by the Government to issue certificates that allow Agency Applications to retrieve SAML Assertions from Credential Services over a client and server authenticated SSL channel, effectively controlling which entities can participate.




































e-government (e-gov)




































The use by the U.S. Government of Web-based Internet applications and other information technology.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


electronic authentication (e-authentication)




































The process of establishing confidence in user identities electronically presented to an information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-63; CNSSI-4009


electronic authentication partnership (EAP)












The multi-industry partnership working on enabling interoperability among public and private electronic authentication (eauthentication) systems.


























electronic business (e-business)




































Doing business online.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


electronic credentials












Digital documents used in authentication that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.


Digital documents used in authentication that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.








Digital documents used in authentication that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.














Digital documents used in authentication that bind an identity or an attribute to a subscriber's token.

SOURCE: SP 800-63; CNSSI-4009


electronic evidence




































Information and data of investigative value that is stored on or transmitted by an electronic device.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


electronic identifier

A string of characters or structured data that may be used to reference an electronic identity.? Examples include an email address, a user account name, a Kerberos principal name, a UC or campus NetID, an employee or student ID, or a PKI certificate.





































electronic identity

A set of information that is maintained about an individual, typically in campus electronic identity databases.? May include roles and privileges as well as personal information.? The information must be authoritative to the applications for which it will be used.










The information about a registered entity that the Identity Provider has chosen to represent the Identity of that entity. The eID includes a name or an identifier for the entity that

is unique within the domain of the Identity Provider.



























electronic identity credential

An electronic identifier and corresponding personal secret associated with an electronic identity.? An electronic identity credential typically is issued to the person who is the subject of the information to enable that person to gain access to applications or other resources that need to control such access.





































electronic identity database

A structured collection of information pertaining to a given individual.? Sometimes referred to as an "enterprise directory."? Typically includes name, address, email address, affiliation, and electronic identifier(s).? Many technologies can be used to create an identity database, for example LDAP or a set of linked relational databases.





































electronic key entry




































The entry of cryptographic keys into a cryptographic module using electronic methods such as a smart card or a key-loading device. (The operator of the key may have no knowledge of the value of the key being entered.)

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


electronic key management system (EKMS)




































Interoperable collection of systems being developed by services and agencies of the U.S. Government to automate the planning, ordering, generating, distributing, storing, filling, using, and destroying of electronic key and management of other types of COMSEC material.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


electronic messaging services




































Services providing interpersonal messaging capability; meeting specific functional, management, and technical requirements; and yielding a business-quality electronic mail service suitable for the conduct of official government business.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


electronic record























The term "˜electronic record' means a contract or other record created, generated, sent, communicated, received, or stored by electronic means.















electronic risk and requirements assessment or E-RA (E-RA)


A risk-based approach to authentication requirements. This approach identifies the Risks associated with insufficient authentication of users, and it forms the basis for the definition of authentication requirements.




































electronic signature























"˜Electronic signature' means an electronic sound, symbol, or process, attached to or logically associated with a contract or other record and executed or adopted by a person with the intent to sign the record.

Electronic signature means a computer data compilation of any symbol or series of symbols executed, adopted, or authorized by an individual to be the legally binding equivalent of the individual's handwritten signature.

"˜Electronic signature' means data in electronic form in, affixed to, or logically associated with, a data message, which may be used to identify the signatory in relation to the data message and indicate the signatory's approval of the information contained in the data message.

Electronic signature means a computer data compilation of any symbol or series of symbols executed, adopted, or authorized by an individual to be the legally binding equivalent of the individual's handwritten signature.













The process of applying any mark in electronic form with the intent to sign a data object. See also digital signature.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


electronic trust service (ETS)












A service that enhances trust and confidence in electronic transactions, typically but not necessarily using cryptographic techniques or involving confidential material such as PINs and passwords.


A service that enhances trust and confidence in electronic transactions, typically but not necessarily using cryptographic techniques or involving confidential material such as PINs and passwords.








A service that enhances trust and confidence in electronic transactions, typically but not necessarily using cryptographic techniques or involving confidential material such as PINs and passwords.
















electronic trust service provider (ETSP)












An entity that provides one or more electronic trust services.


An entity that provides one or more electronic trust services.








An entity that provides one or more electronic trust services.
















electronically generated key




































Key generated in a COMSEC device by introducing (either mechanically or electronically) a seed key into the device and then using the seed, together with a software algorithm stored in the device, to produce the desired key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


e-mail based authentication


































Applications may defer identification and authentication of a user to an e-mail system, essentially eliminating any need to manage or support the authentication process directly. This is typically as follows:

1. The user identifies himself to an application by typing his e-mail address.

2. An e-mail containing a randomized URL is sent to that address.

3. If the user can click on the e-mail, he has demonstrated that he has access to the e-mail account, and is therefore authenticated.

This is a weak form of authentication, since it is impossible to say how secure the user's e-mail service is, but it is adequate for many applications.




emanations security (EMSEC)




































Protection resulting from measures taken to deny unauthorized individuals information derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emissions from crypto-equipment or an information system. See TEMPEST.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


embedded application password


































An embedded application password is a password stored in one application and used to connect to another. A common example is a database (ID and) password stored on a web application and used to connect to the database, to fetch and update database records.




embedded computer




































Computer system that is an integral part of a larger system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


embedded cryptographic system




































Cryptosystem performing or controlling a function as an integral element of a larger system or subsystem.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


embedded cryptography




































Cryptography engineered into an equipment or system whose basic function is not cryptographic.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


encipher




































Convert plain text to cipher text by means of a cryptographic system.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enclave




































Collection of information systems connected by one or more internal networks under the control of a single authority and security policy. The systems may be structured by physical proximity or by function, independent of location.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enclave boundary




































Point at which an enclave's internal network service layer connects to an external network's service layer, i.e., to another enclave or to a Wide Area Network (WAN).

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


encode




































Convert plain text to cipher text by means of a code.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


encrypt




































Generic term encompassing encipher and encode.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


encrypted key




































A cryptographic key that has been encrypted using an Approved security function with a key encrypting key, a PIN, or a password in order to disguise the value of the underlying plaintext key.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2


encrypted network




































A network on which messages are encrypted (e.g., using DES, AES, or other appropriate algorithms) to prevent reading by unauthorized parties.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


encryption









The conversion of clear text (readable data) into a form called cipher text that cannot be easily understood by unauthorised people or systems, by using cryptographic keys. These keys need to be kept secure from software hacking and loss - PC motherboards that have a Trusted Platform Module can be used. For example; Microsoft's BitLocker in Vista can use the TPM chip to store disk encryption keys.






















The process of transforming information to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special key (to decrypt).





Conversion of plaintext to ciphertext through the use of a cryptographic algorithm.

SOURCE: FIPS 185

The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext for the purpose of security or privacy.

SOURCE: SP 800-21; CNSSI-4009


encryption algorithm




































Set of mathematically expressed rules for rendering data unintelligible by executing a series of conversions controlled by a key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


encryption certificate




































A certificate containing a public key that is used to encrypt electronic messages, files, documents, or data transmissions, or to establish or exchange a session key for these same purposes.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


encryption key pair























A pair of asymmetric keys composed of a public encryption key and a corresponding private decryption key.















end cryptographic unit (ECU)




































Device that (1) performs cryptographic functions, (2) typically is part of a larger system for which the device provides security services, and (3) from the viewpoint of a supporting security infrastructure (e.g., a key management system), is the lowest level of identifiable component with which a management transaction can be conducted.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


end-entity























An Entity that uses the keys and certificates created within the PKI for purposes other than the management of the aforementioned keys and certificates. An End-Entity may be a Subscriber, a Relying Party, a device, or an application.















end-item accounting




































Accounting for all the accountable components of a COMSEC equipment configuration by a single short title.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


endpoint





















A term used in [WSDLv1.1] "” it is the short form of protocol endpoint "” and which itself means an identified entity, at the current level of abstraction, to which a protocol message, of the same level of abstraction, may be sent. For example, at the Internet Protocol (IP) layer, an endpoint is represented by an IP address, and one may send an IP datagram (AKA a "message") to said endpoint. In contrast, at the HTTP layer, an endpoint is represented by a URL, in conjunction perhaps with other information included in the so-called "HTTP header".

See also ID-WSF Endpoint Reference.

















end-to-end encryption




































Communications encryption in which data is encrypted when being passed through a network, but routing information remains visible.

SOURCE: SP 800-12

Encryption of information at its origin and decryption at its intended destination without intermediate decryption.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


end-to-end security




































Safeguarding information in an information system from point of origin to point of destination.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


end-user


Any citizen, Government employee, contractor, or business that authenticates to an AA using a Credential issued by a CS.

















A natural person who makes use of resources for application purposes (as opposed to system management purposes; see Administrator, User).



















enforcement notice (Data Protection Act)
































The Information Commissioner has the power to serve an enforcement notice if he is satisfied that a data controller has contravened or is contravening the data protection principles. The notice must set out the steps that the data controller must take to comply with the relevant requirements of the Act. The notice may be appealed to the Information Tribunal which may confirm, amend or overturn it. However, in the absence of an appeal, if the data controller fails to comply with a notice, a criminal offence is committed.






enrollment






An enrolment is synonymous with a registration.



The process of adding a Permission to an Identity. It may result in the issuing of a new identity or an additional account. The link between Registration and Enrolment must remain unbroken.


The enrolment of an entity is the process in which the entity is identified and/or other attributes are corroborated.


The process by which organizations verify an individual's identity claims before

issuing digital credentials.











The process of inauguration of an entity into a context. Enrolment may include verification of the entity's identity and establishment of a contextual identity.


The process of inauguration of an entity into a context.

The process of inauguration of an entity into a context.

The process of inauguration of an entity into a context. Enrolment may include verification of the entity's identity and establishment of a contextual identity.










enrollment manager




































The management role that is responsible for assigning user identities to management and non-management roles.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enterprise




































An organization with a defined mission/goal and a defined boundary, using information systems to execute that mission, and with responsibility for managing its own risks and performance. An enterprise may consist of all or some of the following business aspects: acquisition, program management, financial management (e.g., budgets), human resources, security, and information systems, information and mission management.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enterprise architecture (EA)




































The description of an enterprise's entire set of information systems: how they are configured, how they are integrated, how they interface to the external environment at the enterprise's boundary, how they are operated to support the enterprise mission, and how they contribute to the enterprise's overall security posture.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enterprise role


































An enterprise role is a collection of entitlements spanning multiple systems or applications. Like simple roles, enterprise roles are used to simplify security administration on systems and applications, by encapsulating popular sets of entitlements and assigning them as packages, rather than individually, to users.




enterprise risk management




































The methods and processes used by an enterprise to manage risks to its mission and to establish the trust necessary for the enterprise to support shared missions. It involves the identification of mission dependencies on enterprise capabilities, the identification and prioritization of risks due to defined threats, the implementation of countermeasures to provide both a static risk posture and an effective dynamic response to active threats; and it assesses enterprise performance against threats and adjusts countermeasures as necessary.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enterprise service




































A set of one or more computer applications and middleware systems hosted on computer hardware that provides standard information systems capabilities to end users and hosted mission applications and services.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


enterprise single signon


































A technology which reduces the number of times that a user must sign into systems and applications by automatically populating login ID and password fields when applications ask for user authentication. This is done by monitoring what is displayed on a user's desktop and - when appropriate - typing keystrokes on behalf of the user. In short -- "screen scraping" the user's desktop.

In short, applications are unmodified and continue to perform user authentication. Reduced sign-on is achieved by auto-populating rather than removing login prompts.




entitlement









See Permissions.





























entitlement management


































Entitlement management refers to a set of technologies and processes used to coherently manage security rights across an organization. The objectives are to reduce the cost of administration, to improve service and to ensure that users get exactly the security rights they need.

These objectives are attained by creating a set of robust, consistent processes to grant and revoke entitlements across multiple systems and applications:

1. Create and regularly update a consolidated database of entitlements.

2. Define roles, so that entitlements can be assigned to users in sets that are easier for business users to understand.

3. Enable self-service requests and approvals, so that decisions about entitlements can be made by business users with contextual knowledge, rather than by IT staff.

4. Synchronize entitlements between systems, where appropriate.

5. Periodically invite business stake-holders to review entitlements and roles assigned to users and identify no-longer-appropriate ones for further examination and removal.




entitlement model


































Entitlement (or privilege) model is a synonym for role model.




entity



A person, physical object, animal, or juridical entity



An entity is anyone (natural or legal person) or anything that shall be characterised through the measurement of its attributes.


1. An entity is a human person, a non-human legal entity (e.g. a company, a government), a virtual artifact (e.g. a computer process, an application, a text file), a tangible object (e.g. a book, a device, a tree), a location (e.g. a town, a CPU memory address), or a grouping of other entities (e.g. an organization).

2. A person, physical object, animal, or juridical entity. In an identity system implementation an Identity Gang]

anyone (a natural or legal "˜person') or anything with a separate existence that can be characterised through the dimension of its attributes. Usually requires a cognitive ability, such as human cognition, whereas an Identity doesn't - refer to the Turin Test, the Deep Blue chess program and the HAL9000 of "2001 -A Space Odyssey". An Entity may not need an Identity to access a "˜free' service, but needs at least one Identity to access a restricted service. In general an Entity cannot be owned, in the way that an identity can be owned, except in some legislative sense. Shareholders of a company may claim "˜ownership', when they in fact only have some legal entitlement to the assets. Animals (eg horses) and humans (eg slaves) cannot actually be owned in the Identity sense, only possessed due to legal arrangements. Given that access credentials are issued to identities, why does this matter? Because it is the entity that applies for each identity, and the entity is legally responsible for the actions of the identity. It is often the entity that federates multiple identities.

a. Anything that has separate and distinct existence that can be uniquely identified. In the context of IdM, examples of entities include subscribers, users, network elements, networks, software applications, services and devices. An entity may have multiple identifiers.

b. An entity is anyone (natural or legal person) or anything that shall be characterized through the measurement of its attributes.

c. A person, physical object, animal, or judicial entity.

d. A particular thing, such as a person, place, process, object, concept, association, or event.

i. Anything that has separate and distinct existence that can be uniquely identified. In the context of IdM, examples of entities include subscribers, users, network elements, networks, software applications, services and devices. An entity may have multiple identifiers.

ii. An entity is anyone (natural or legal person) or any-thing that shall be characterised through the measurement of its attributes.

iii. A person, physical object, animal, or juridical entity.

iv. A particular thing, such as a person, place, process, object, concept, association, or event.






A person, physical object, animal, or juridical entity.






Any autonomous element within a public key infrastructure. An entity is not necessarily an individual, but may be a computer or a particular application. For example, a CA, an RA, a subscriber, a relying party, a Web server

application are all entities.

Anything that has separate and distinct existence and that can be identified in context.


Something that has separate and distinct existence and that can be identified in context.

Something that has separate and distinct existence and that can be identified in context.

Anything that has separate and distinct existence and that can be identified in context.



An organization that collects, uses, retains, and discloses personal information.





Either a subject (an active element that operates on information or the system state) or an object (a passive element that contains or receives information).

SOURCE: SP 800-27

An active element in an open system.

SOURCE: FIPS 188

Any participant in an authentication exchange; such a participant may be human or nonhuman, and may take the role of a claimant and/or verifier.

SOURCE: FIPS 196


entity authentication






Entity authentication is the corroboration of the claimed identity of an entity and a set of its observed attributes.


















A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.


A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.

A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.

A process to achieve sufficient confidence in the binding between the entity and the presented identity.










entrapment




































Deliberate planting of apparent flaws in an IS for the purpose of detecting attempted penetrations.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


entropy




































A measure of the amount of uncertainty that an attacker faces to determine the value of a secret.

SOURCE: SP 800-63


environment




































Aggregate of external procedures, conditions, and objects affecting the development, operation, and maintenance of an information system.

SOURCE: FIPS 200; CNSSI-4009


ephemeral key









A cryptographic key associated with an expiration time. The ability to encrypt data in such a way that ensures it cannot be decrypted after a given date/time. This results in "˜ephemeral data'. One party establishes a number of ephemeral public/private key pairs, each of which will be destroyed at a time in the future and makes them publicly available; a second party then selects one of these key pairs having an expiration time appropriate for its needs. The requesting party first encrypts the data using an encryption key of the party which will receive the message, and then encrypts the resulting encrypted data again using the acquired ephemeral encryption key. It is not necessary to encrypt an entire message using an ephemeral encryption key; it may simply be used to encrypt another key contained within the message header.



























A cryptographic key that is generated for each execution of a key establishment process and that meets other requirements of the key type (e.g., unique to each message or session).

SOURCE: SP 800-57


erasure




































Process intended to render magnetically stored information irretrievable by normal means.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


error detection code




































A code computed from data and comprised of redundant bits of information designed to detect, but not correct, unintentional changes in the data.

SOURCE: FIPS 140-2; CNSSI-4009


escalated authorizer


































A given authorizer may not always be available. In cases where an authorizer fails to respond to a request to approve or reject a requested change, and where the authorizer has not named a delegated authorizer, an automatic escalation process may select a replacement authorizer after a period of time. This replacement is the escalated authorizer.

User profiles are created, changed and deleted in response to business processes. This section captures the most important processes that drive identity management.




escrow




































Something (e.g., a document, an encryption key) that is "delivered to a third person to be given to the grantee only upon the fulfillment of a condition."

SOURCE: FIPS 185


estoppel























Following misrepresentations by one party that have induced detrimental reliance by the other party, a legal theory that rejects a subsequent attempt by the first party to deny those misrepresentations.















evaluation























In the context of a PKI, an evaluation is generally a analysis of a CA or its components (such as an RA, repository, or cryptomodule) in relation to specified criteria. The target of an evaluation may be either a product or a service. Note: Given the complexity of PKIs, it is generally thought that a comprehensive evaluation is neither cost effective nor necessarily feasible.















evaluation assurance level (EAL)




































Set of assurance requirements that represent a point on the Common Criteria predefined assurance scale.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


evaluation products list (EPL)




































List of validated products that have been successfully evaluated under the National Information Assurance Partnership (NIAP) Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme (CCEVS).


evaluator























The Evaluator is an entity that actually evaluates a CA or its components.















event




































Any observable occurrence in a network or system.

SOURCE: SP 800-61

Any observable occurrence in a system and/or network. Events sometimes provide indication that an incident is occurring.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


event logging









The recording of details of an end-to-end enterprise-wide process, for audit purposes. It should have the ability to give a single picture of the actions of any identity over time. The file should be encrypted, and digitally signed to detect tampering. It may include capture of web-based actions, authentication, accesses and database activity related to an application or a session. It may also include real-time alerts, as well as after-the-event reports.





























evidence of identity (EOI or POI)









The items and documents used to prove an Entity's identity.





























examination




































A technical review that makes the evidence visible and suitable for analysis; tests performed on the evidence to determine the presence or absence of specific data.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


exculpatory evidence




































Evidence that tends to decrease the likelihood of fault or guilt.

SOURCE: SP 800-72


executive agency




































An executive department specified in 5 United States Code (U.S.C.), Sec. 101; a military department specified in 5 U.S.C., Sec. 102; an independent establishment as defined in 5 U.S.C., Sec. 104(1); and a wholly owned Government corporation fully subject to the provisions of 31 U.S.C., Chapter 91.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; FIPS 200; FIPS 199; 41 U.S.C., Sec. 403; CNSSI-4009


exercise key




































Cryptographic key material used exclusively to safeguard communications transmitted over-the-air during military or organized civil training exercises.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


expired password


































An account is said to have an expired password if the user will be forced to change passwords after the next successful login.




explicit role assignment


































A role may be explicitly assigned to a user -- i.e., some database will include a record of the form "user X should have role Y."




exploit code




































A program that allows attackers to automatically break into a system.

SOURCE: SP 800-40


expoitable channel




































Channel that allows the violation of the security policy governing an information system and is usable or detectable by subjects external to the trusted computing base. See covert channel.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


extended assessment procedure




































A type of assessment procedure that is applied to an individual security control or a group of controls (e.g., the set of security controls in a particular security control family or the set of controls in a security plan) and is used in conjunction with other assessment procedures in providing the necessary information for determining control effectiveness.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A


eXtensible Markup Language (XML)



















Extensible Markup Language, abbreviated XML, describes a class of data objects called XML documents and partially describes the behavior of computer programs which process them.


A W3C technology for encoding information and documents for exchange over the Web. See [XML], [XMLCanon], [XMLDsig], [xmlenc-core], [Schema1-2], and [Schema2-2]

















external information system (or component)




































An information system or component of an information system that is outside of the accreditation boundary established by the organization and for which the organization typically has no direct control over the application of required security controls or the assessment of security control effectiveness.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; CNSSI-4009


external information system service




































An information system service that is implemented outside of the accreditation boundary of the organizational information system (i.e., a service that is used by, but not a part of, the organizational information system.

SOURCE: SP 800-53A

An information system service that is implemented outside of the authorization boundary of the organizational information system (i.e., a service that is used by, but not a part of, the organizational information system) and for which the organization typically has no direct control over the application of required security controls or the assessment of security control effectiveness.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


external information system service provider




































A provider of external information system services to an organization through a variety of consumer-producer relationships, including but not limited to: joint ventures; business partnerships; outsourcing arrangements (i.e., through contracts, interagency agreements, lines of business arrangements); licensing agreements; and/or supply chain exchanges.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A


external network




































A network not controlled by the organization.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


external security testing




































Security testing conducted from outside the organization's security perimeter.

SOURCE: SP 800-115


extraction resistance




































Capability of crypto-equipment or secure telecommunications equipment to resist efforts to extract key.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


extranet




































A private network that uses Web technology, permitting the sharing of portions of an enterprise's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other enterprises.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


factor









The fundamental classification of credential types. There are actually only three factors: what you "˜know', what you "˜have', and what you "˜are'. Combining two, or three, into a multiple-factor solution is a means of stronger authentication. There are suggestions from time to time of new factor classifications such as "˜what you do' or "˜where you are', but they always resolve into the basic three.





























fail safe




































Automatic protection of programs and/or processing systems when hardware or software failure is detected.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


fail soft




































Selective termination of affected nonessential processing when hardware or software failure is determined to be imminent.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


failover




































The capability to switch over automatically (typically without human intervention or warning) to a redundant or standby information system upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active system.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; CNSSI-4009


failure access




































Type of incident in which unauthorized access to data results from hardware or software failure.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


failure control




































Methodology used to detect imminent hardware or software failure and provide fail safe or fail soft recovery.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


false acceptance




































When a biometric system incorrectly identifies an individual or incorrectly verifies an impostor against a claimed identity.

SOURCE: SP 800-76

In biometrics, the instance of a security system incorrectly verifying or identifying an unauthorized person. It typically is considered the most serious of biometric security errors as it gives unauthorized users access to systems that expressly are trying to keep them out.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


false acceptance rate (FAR)




































The probability that a biometric system will incorrectly identify an individual or will fail to reject an impostor. The rate given normally assumes passive impostor attempts.

SOURCE: SP 800-76

The measure of the likelihood that the biometric security system will incorrectly accept an access attempt by an unauthorized user. A system's false acceptance rate typically is stated as the ratio of the number of false acceptances divided by the number of identification attempts.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


false positive




































An alert that incorrectly indicates that malicious activity is occurring.

SOURCE: SP 800-61


false rejection




































When a biometric system fails to identify an applicant or fails to verify the legitimate claimed identity of an applicant.

SOURCE: SP 800-76

In biometrics, the instance of a security system failing to verify or identify an authorized person. It does not necessarily indicate a flaw in the biometric system; for example, in a fingerprint-based system, an incorrectly aligned finger on the scanner or dirt on the scanner can result in the scanner misreading the fingerprint, causing a false rejection of the authorized user.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


false rejection rate (FRR)




































The probability that a biometric system will fail to identify an applicant, or verify the legitimate claimed identity of an applicant.

SOURCE: SP 800-76

The measure of the likelihood that the biometric security system will incorrectly reject an access attempt by an authorized user. A system's false rejection rate typically is stated as the ratio of the number of false rejections divided by the number of identification attempts.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


federal agency




































SEE Agency, SEE Executive Agency.


federal bridge certification authority (FBCA)




































The Federal Bridge Certification Authority consists of a collection of Public Key Infrastructure components (Certificate Authorities, Directories, Certificate Policies and Certificate Practice Statements) that are used to provide peer-to-peer interoperability among Agency Principal Certification Authorities.

SOURCE: SP 800-32; CNSSI-4009


federal bridge certification authority membrane




































The Federal Bridge Certification Authority Membrane consists of a collection of Public Key Infrastructure components including a variety of Certification Authority PKI products, Databases, CA specific Directories, Border Directory, Firewalls, Routers, Randomizers, etc.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


federal bridge certification authority operational authority




































The Federal Bridge Certification Authority Operational Authority is the organization selected by the Federal Public Key Infrastructure Policy Authority to be responsible for operating the Federal Bridge Certification Authority.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


federal enterprise architecture




































A business-based framework for governmentwide improvement developed by the Office of Management and Budget that is intended to facilitate efforts to transform the federal government to one that is citizen-centered, results-oriented, and market-based.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; SP 800-53A; SP 800-18; SP 800-60; CNSSI-4009


federal information processing standards (FIPS)












Standards and guidelines issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for use governmentwide.


Standards and guidelines issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for use government-wide in the United States. NIST develops FIPS when the U.S. Federal government has compelling requirements, such as for security and interoperability, for which no industry standards or solutions are acceptable.








Standards and guidelines issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for use government-wide in the United States. NIST develops FIPS when the U.S. Federal government has compelling requirements, such as for security and interoperability, for which no industry standards or solutions are acceptable.













A standard for adoption and use by Federal departments and agencies that has been developed within the Information Technology Laboratory and published by NIST, a part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. A FIPS covers some topic in information technology to achieve a common level of quality or some level of interoperability.

A standard for adoption and use by Federal departments and agencies that has been developed within the Information Technology Laboratory and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, a part of the U.S. Department of Commerce. A FIPS covers some topic in information technology in order to achieve a common level of quality or some level of interoperability.

SOURCE: FIPS 201


federal information security management act (FISMA)




































A statute (Title III, P.L. 107-347) that requires agencies to assess risk to information systems and provide information security protections commensurate with the risk. FISMA also requires that agencies integrate information security into their capital planning and enterprise architecture processes, conduct annual information systems security reviews of all programs and systems, and report the results of those reviews to OMB.

SOURCE: CNSSI-4009


federal information system




































An information system used or operated by an executive agency, by a contractor of an executive agency, or by another organization on behalf of an executive agency.

SOURCE: SP 800-53; FIPS 200; FIPS 199; 40 U.S.C., Sec. 11331; CNSSI-4009


federal information systems security educators' assocaition (FISSEA)




































An organization whose members come from federal agencies, industry, and academic institutions devoted to improving the IT security awareness and knowledge within the federal government and its related external workforce.

SOURCE: 800-16


federal public key infrastructure policy authority (FPKI PA)




































The Federal PKI Policy Authority is a federal government body responsible for setting, implementing, and administering policy decisions regarding interagency PKI interoperability that uses the FBCA.

SOURCE: SP 800-32


federate



















To link or bind two or more entities together [Merriam].

To link accounts at two or more entities together.

To link or bind two or more entities together.

















federated architecture




















An architecture that supports multiple entities provisioning Principals among peers within the Liberty Authentication Domain.


















federated identity






A federated identity is a credential of an entity that links an entity's partial entity from one context to a partial entity from another context.



A shared Identity and/or authentication, as the result of federation by either the Entity or by two or more organisations. In a federated identity management scenario, an organisation may assume the role of an identity provider, or requestor / service provider, or both - they are not mutually exclusive. An identity provider "˜owns' the relationship, directly manages end users and is the authoritative source for issuing and validating identities and credentials for a set of users. Identity providers "vouch" for the user identity in a federated interaction with service providers. A service provider does not have a vested business interest in managing the user, but acts as a "relying party" to validate credentials issued by a trusted identity partner. Key standards are SAML, Liberty, WS-Federation, WS-Security and WS-Trust. Also see Federation. A "Circle of Trust" is used to describes the legal agreements made between the parties.

a. A collective term describing agreements standards and technologies that make identity and entitlements portable across autonomous domains.

b. A single user identity that can be used to access a group of services or applications that are bounded by the ties and conditions of a federation.

c. A shared identity and/or authentication, as the result of federation by either the Entity or by two or more organizations.

i. A collective term describing agreements standards and technologies that make identity and entitlements portable across autonomous domains

ii. A single user identity that can be used to access a group of services or applications that are bounded by the ties and conditions of a federation.

iii. A shared Identity and/or authentication, as the result of federation by either the Entity or by two or more organisations.








A principal's identity is said to be federated between a set of Providers when there is an agreement between the providers on a set of identifiers and/or attributes to use to refer to the Principal Federate To link or bind two or more entities together [Merriam].



















federated identity management












A system that allows individuals to use the same user name, password, or other personal identification to sign on to the networks of more than one enterprise in order to conduct transactions.


A system that allows individuals to use the same user name, password, or other personal identification to sign on to the networks of more than one enterprise in order to conduct transactions.








A system that allows individuals to use the same user name, password, or other personal identification to sign on to the networks of more than one enterprise in order to conduct transactions.
















federation









A method of linking together the Identities of an Entity, to provide shared services as a matter of convenience, efficiency and trust.

a. An act of establishing a relationship between two or more entities or an association compromising any number of service providers and identity providers.

b. An established relationship among a domain of a single service provider or among next generation network providers.

c. A federation is a collection of realms that have established a producer-consumer relationship whereby one realm can provide authorized access to a resource it manages based on an identity, and possibly associated attributes, that are asserted in another realm. A federation requires trust such that a Relying Party can make a well-informed access control decision based on the credibility of identity and attribute data that is vouched for by another realm.

i. An act of establishing a relationship between two or more entities or an association compromising any number of service providers and identity providers

ii. An established relationship among a domain of a single service provider or among NGN providers.

iii. A federation is a collection of realms that have established a producer-consumer relationship whereby one realm can provide authorized access to a resource it manages based on an identity, and possibly associated attributes, that are asserted in another realm. A federation requires trust such that a Relying Party can make a well-informed access control decision based on the credibility of identity and attribute data that is vouched for by another realm.








This term is used in two senses in SAML: a) The act of establishing a relationship between two entities [Merriam]. b) An association comprising any number of service providers and identity providers.

An association comprising any number of Service Providers and Identity Providers.

1. (1) The act of establishing a relationship between two entities.

2. (2) An association comprising any number of service providers and identity providers.



An association of users, service providers and identity service providers.


An association of users, service providers, and identity service providers.

An association of users, service providers, and identity service providers.

An association of users, service providers and identity service providers.






Federation is both a technology and a business relationship. The business relationship is one where one organization (A) trusts a partner (B) to authenticate and authorize users who will subsequently be allowed to access A's resources (typically web applications) without having user records on A's network.

This technology depends on a business relationship with implicit trust of B by A.




federation change management


Policies and processes agreed to by Federation Members to review, approve, and roll out architecture changes to production.




































federation member


A Relying Party or Credential Service Provider that has successfully completed the preparation phase and the boarding phase. A Federation Member's System (Agency Application or Credential Service) is integrated into the production Authentication Service Component in the third and final phase of joining the Federation "“ the rollout phase.




































federation operations center


Organization within the PMO that operates and maintains the ASC production environment, and manages integration of Member Systems into the production ASC.




































federation operator














An individual or group that defines standards for its respective federation, or trust community and evaluates participation in the community or network to ensure compliance with policy, including the ability to request audits of participants for verification.








An individual or group that defines standards for its respective federation, or trust community and evaluates participation in the community or network to ensure compliance with policy, including the ability to request audits of participants for verification.
















federation portal (Portal)


A website that helps End-Users locate the CSs and AAs they need to complete their transactions. The Portal also maintains information about CSs and AAs referred to as Metadata, which includes technical interface data as well as descriptive information. When the End-User opts into single sign-on, the Portal assigns a session cookie.




































federation style guide


Guidelines pertaining to Federation Member use of E-Authentication logos, branding, and providing E-Authentication instructions and information to End-Users via Federation Member System web pages.




































file encryption